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Π Π Ƞ Π ߠ

 

Π - ɠ ɠ ɠ

 

 

 

Π

 

 

 

 

 

ߠ

 

: Š ۠


Ҡ III

ܠ 2401 ____________


= . . =

 

: = . .   =








.

1998 .



1.   Š .3

2. ߠ .4.

3.   . .5

3.1 .6

3.2 Ѡ ߠ .6

3.3 ߠ .6

3.4 .7

3.5 Š . .7

3.6 . .8

3.7 Š ɠ . .9

4.   ɠ . .10

4.1 - . .10

4.2 . . 12

4.3 (N) , (Z) . .13

4.4

. .17

5.   . .18

6.   . .19






























 


1.   .

. , , .

.

, . , .

, .

, , , , . ( ) .






























2.   .

, , . - , , - . .

-164 .


1. .

.

.

.

..

.

90

6

.

.

5400

8,.2

0,95

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
























3.   .

, . , .


:

e = 8,2 . -93 ( = 81¸90 ) . . = 0,855 , = 0,145 , - ; - ; - . 1. , , , , : ++ = 1 .


A :

. , , . , . , 0,23% , 0,208% , 1 :

.

.

, 1 . a=0,9 : alo = 0.9*14.957 = 13.461 ; aLo = 0,9 * 0,516 = 0,464 . m = 115 , :

1 = 1/ m + aLo = 1/115+0,464 = 0,473 .

( a<1 ) () , (2) , (2) , (2) , (N2) . =0,47 ( , ).:

= 2*0,21*[(1-a)/(1+K)]*Lo = 0,42*(0,1/1,47)*0,516 = 0,0147 .

2 = /12- = 0,855/12-0,0147 = 0,0565 .

2 = * = 0,47*0,0147 = 0,00692 .

2 = /2 - 2 = 0,145/2-0,00692 = 0,06558 .

N2 = 0,792*aLo = 0,792*0,9*0,516 = 0,368 .


:

2 = 0,0147+0,0565+0,00692+0,06558+0,368 = 0,5117 .

: 2 = /12+/2+0,792*aLo = 0,855/12+0,145/2+0,792*0,9*0,516 = 0,5117 .

: Pk=Po=0.1 () Tk=To= 293 () , D = 20 . : r = 1030o . : PrN = 1.16*Po = 1,16*0,1 = 0,116 () .

,

rN - , nN - 5400 /. :

r=0×( 1,035+ ×10-8 ×n2)= 0,1×(1,035+0,42867×10-8×54002) = 0,1×(1,035+0,125)=0,116 ()


3.1 .


D DN =10 .

:

D = × (110-0,0125×n) = 0,23533×(110-0,0125×5400)= 10 .

: ,

0 =0,1 () ; 0 = 293 () ; - 287 (./*.) Þ r0 = ( 0,1*106)/(287*293) = 1,189 (/3).

D ,

( (b2+x)= 3,5 , b - , x - ) ,

D = (b2+x)* n2*n2*(rk /2*10-6) , n = w/ nN , w - (w = 95 /) , n= 95/5400 = 0,0176 . : rk = r0 = 1,189 ( /3) .Þ D = (3,5× 0,1762×54002×1,189×10-6)/2 = (3,5×0,0003094×29160000×1,189×10-6) = 0,0107 ().

: = 0 - D = 0,1- 0,0107 = 0,0893 ().

:

, =293 ; D = 10 ; r = 0,116 () ; r = 1000 K ;

Pa= 0.0893 ();e = 8,2 , : gr = (293+10)/1000*0,116/(8,2*0,0893-0,116) =0,057.


: ().


3.2 .


n= 1,37 . :

= ×en = 0.0893× 8.21.37 = 1,595 (). : = ×e(n-1) = 340,6×8,20,37 = 741,918@ 742 ().

( ): mcv = 20,16+1,74×10-3× = 20,16+1,74×10-3×742 = 21,45 (/×.)

: r = a×gr×L0 = 0,95×0,057×0,516=0,0279 ().

: = 1+r = 0,473+0,0279= 0,5()

3.3 .


( a<1) : mc = (18,4+2,6×a)+(15,5+13,8×a)×10-4×z= 20,87+28,61×10-4×z = 20,87+0,00286×z (/×).

: z = M2+Mr = 0,5117+0,0279 = 0,5396 () . : b = z / Mc = 0,5397/0,5 = 1,08 .

xz = 0,8 , , lz 1 . : Q = xz×(Hu-DQH) , Hu - 42700 (/)., DQH =119950×(1-a)× L0 - , :

DQH = 119950×(1-0,95) ×0,516 = 3095 (/) , Q = 0,8×(42700-3095) =31684 (/). (a<1) :

, :

1,08(20,87+0,00286*z)*Tz = 36636/(0,95*0,516*(1+0,057))+21,45*742

22,4z +0,003z2 = 86622 Þ 22,4 z +0,003 z2 - 86622 = 0

: z = Pc*b*Tz /Tc = 1,595*1,08*2810/742 = 6,524 () . : z = 0,85*z = 0,85*6,524 =5,545 () . : l = z / = 6,524/1,595 = 4,09


3.4 .


n2 = 1,25

:

6,524/13,876=0,4701().2810/1,7=1653

:

1653/ 1,6 = 1037 . :

D= 100*(1037-1030)/1030 = 0,68% , D< 1,7 .


3.5 .


:

=1,163 () . j = 0,96 , : i = 0,96* i = 0,96*1,163 = 1,116 () .

... : hi = pi l0 a / (QH r0 hv ) = (1,116 *14,957*0,9)/(42,7*1,189*0,763) = 0,388 , Q = 42,7 /.

: gi = 3600/ (QH hi ) = 3600/(42,7*0,388) =217 / .


3.6 .


m = 15 /. , S= 75 . n=5400 /. , : = +* m , S/D =0,75<1 , =0,0395 , = 0,0113 , = 0,0395+0,0113*15 =0,209 .

: = i - p = 1,116-0,209= 0,907 .

... : h = / i = 0,907/ 1,116 = 0 ,812

... :

h= hi h = 0,388*0,812 = 0,315 ; ge = 3600/(QH h) = 3600/(42,7*0,315) = 268 /

.

1.   : V = 30×t N / ( n) = 30*4*90/(0,907*5400) = 2,205 .

2.   : Vh = V / i = 2,205 / 6 = 0,368 .

3.   : D = 2×103×Ö Vh(pS) = 2*10^3*(0,368/(3,14*75))^(0,5)= 2*103*0,0395 = 79,05 .@ 80 .

4.   S = 75 . D = 80. : V = pD2Si / (4*106) = (3,14*6400*75*6)/(4000000)= 2,26 .

5.   : F = pD2 / 4 = 20096/4 = 5024 2 = 50,24 (2).

6.   : N = V n / 30t = (0,907*2,26*5400)/(30*4) = 92,24 (.).

7.   : = (3*104 / p)(Ne /n) = (30000/3,14)*(92,24/5400) = 163,2 (×)

8.   : G = Ne ×ge ×10-3 = 92,24×268×10-3 = 92,24*268*10^(-3)=24,72 .

9.   : Nn = 4× Ne /i×p×D2 = (4*92,24)/(6*3,14*80*80) =30,6


3.7 .


, .. Ne=92,24 . n=5400 /.

: 1 . ; 0,05 .

:

= S/Ms = 75/1,0 =75 . ; = / (e-1) = 75/(8,2-1) = 10,4 .

Z : z / Mp = 6,524/0,05 = 130,48 .

:

/ = 0,0893/0,05 = 1,786 . ; / = 1,595/0,05 = 31,9 . ; / = 0,4701/0,05 = 9,402 . : r / = 0,116/0,05 = 2,32 . ; 0 / = 0,1/0,05 = 2 .



:

1.   : = (V V )n1 . / = (/)(/)n1 . , = += 75+10,4 = 85,4 . ; n1 = 1,377 .

 

2. :


3. .:

/ = (V /V)n2 , / = (/)(/)n2 , = 85,4 ; n2 =1.25



.1. .




4.   .


- .

Sn = (R+a)- ( R cos.a+acos.b)= R[(1+1/l)-( cos.b+1/l cos.b)] , l =R / a , Sn = R[(1+ l/4)-( cos.a+ l/4 cos.2a)] , a=180 Sn=S - , : 75 = R[(1+l/4)-(-1+l/4)] ; 75 = R[1.0625+0.9375] ; 75 = 2R Þ R = 75/2 = 37.5 .=0,0375 .

l=R/L Þ L = R/l= 37,5/0,25 = 150 .=15 . .. l= 0,25

:

V = dSn/dt = Rw( sina + l/2sin2a) , jn = d2Sn/dt = Rw2(cosa + lcos2a) ,

: w = pn/30 = 3,14*5400/30 = 565,2 / .


4.. :

1- ( sina + l/2sin2a) ; 2- (cosa + lcos2a)


5.


5. .(/)


a

0

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

V

0

12,89

20,65

21,2

16,06

8,31

0

-8,31

-16,06

-21,2

-20,65

-12,89

a

360

390

420

450

480

510

540

570

600

630

660

690

V

0

12,89

20,65

21,2

16,06

8,31

0

-8,31

-16,06

-21,2

-20,65

-12,89


6. .


a

0

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

j

14974

11872

4492

-2995

-7487

-8877

-8985

-8877

-7487

-2995

4492

11872

a

360

390

420

450

480

510

540

570

600

630

660

690

j

14974

11872

4492

-2995

-7487

-8877

-8985

-8877

-7487

-2995

4492

11872






.2 .


. 3 .

4.2 .


1 : 1= Rl/2 = 0,25*3,75/2 = 0,47 (). :

= mj w2 R(1+l) = 0,5 z = 0,5*6,524 = 3,262 () ; = 3,262/0,05 = 65,24 .

:

BD EF :

BD = - mj w2 R(1-l) = - 0,000218*319451*0,0375*(1-0,25) = -1,959 () .

EF = -3 mj w2 Rl = -3*0,000218*319451*0,0375*0,25 = -1,959 ( ). Þ BD= EF



.4 .


: j = - mj w2 R(cosa + lcos2a)






7. .

a

0

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

j

-3,25

-2.58

-0,98

0,65

1,625

1,927

1,95

1,927

1,625

0,65

-0,98

-2,58

a

360

390

420

450

480

510

540

570

600

630

660

690

Pj

-3,25

-2,58

-0,98

0,65

1,625

1,927

1,95

1,927

1,625

0,65

-0,98

-2,58

, :

, 0 = 0,1 , = r +Pj - P0 , r - , . 8. , :

N= *tgb ; Z = * cos(a+b)/cosb ; T = * sin(a+b)/cosb


 

 

 

 

 

 

8. .



N (.5) , (.6) , (.7) .


.5 N .



6. .



.7.


4.4 .


, , , , . 10 .

: å = å (å i) F R , F - : F = 0,005 2 , ; R= 0,0375 . - . : 1-4-2-6-3-5 .

: =98100* F R










. 8. .


: . = ( max + Mmin)/2

. = (609,94+162,2)/2 = 386 × .



5. .

, .

, , , , .

.










































6. .


1. . . . . . .: , 1980.;

2. . . . . .: , 1967.;

3. . . : . , 1997..


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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