The general knowledge of neologisms


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workgeneral knowledge of neologisms


nature of the Universe loves nothing so muchto change the things which are and to make new things like them.

(Marcus Aurelius Antoninus)

neologism language english

Any language is a dynamic system, which constantly develops, transforms and changes. The processes in social, cultural, scientific and political life, the contemporary level of technology development and intercultural communication implies constant language evolution. Both linguistic and extralinguistic factors play a significant role in appearing new units in the language (neologisms). These new units help us to understand and cope with change by creating mental bridges between the old and the new. The language vocabulary is changing, renewing the words and phrases. Neologisms play a great role in the contemporary system of language and speech.term neologism is used by linguists to describe a new word, usage, or expression. It is often created by combining existing words or by using a word in a different context.Some neologisms have now become a part of Standard English, while others have faded away. In the same way, some of todays neologisms will become a part of the dictionaries of the 22nd century, while others will be discarded, replaced by more descriptive language.object of the research work is a neologism as a language unit.subject of the research is the peculiarities of using neologisms in different spheres of human activities, making close studying the computer neologisms. purpose of the research is to investigate the neologisms as language units. accordance with the purpose of the research there are the following tasks in the work:

-to determine the basic theoretical conceptions of the neologism;

-to investigate the classification and ways of formation of neologisms;

to analyze the spheres of usage of the neologisms;

to investigate the computer neologisms in particular and the peculiarities of their formation and translation.the present paper there were used the following methods of the research as analysis and synthesis, descriptive and comparative methods.list of neologisms found on the Internet resources is added in the Appendix. The list does not claim overall completeness or fullness, but it, however, can be the data of this research work. This list demonstrates different ways of computer neologisms formation and explains the meanings of these new words.

1. The general knowledge of neologisms

1.1From the history of notion and definition of neologism

modern word rapidly changes, so does the language of a speech. The language change reflects every aspect of the changing life as well. New inventions and new discoveries have to be named and need proper vocabulary. New words (or neologisms) are raised by creativity of our minds and come into existence in everyday communication. They appear all the time continuously.words table, sky once were neologisms. But soon they became vital and widespread to be felt neologisms. Names of different fruit, species were new names of new concepts (pea, cherry, pepper). The introduction of Christianity brought with it a great number of new concepts and words (church, candle). The Norman Conquest also contributed to the enrichment of the English vocabulary (army). development of industry, the development of technology, new inventions caused the appearance of new words (film, television, self-starter). A great number of neologisms appeared during the periods of great social upheavals (machine, bank, investment). After the Bourgeois Revolution in France there appeared such words as bureaucracy, revolution, regime, terrorism. World War I such neologisms as blackout, camouflage, air-raid appeared. After World War II such words as H-bomb, the UNO, cold war entered the language. the 70-s of the 20th century neologisms were connected with all spheres of life: computerization (multi-user, neurocomputer, liveware, telepost, telebanking, finger-print); exploration of space (space-bike, cargo-module, link-up); development of the arts (soft art, action painting, kinetic art; development of cinema, TV, video (inflight videosystem, satellite-delivered show, kidvid); theatrical art (theatre of absurd, son et lumiere, revolve); social development (the Lib movement, libbie). the 70s libbies declared that the English language discriminated women. As a result of it the names denoting occupations and containing the element man underwent some changes. The word cameraman was substituted by operator, fireman - fire-fighter, chairman - chairperson, policeman - police officer. Even in church the word mankind was substituted by people. At the same time the names of womens professions were changed: stewardess - flight attendant, nurse - male nurse, male secretary. He/she in written speech is used when both sexes are meant. S/he variant is less frequently used. the 80-s - 90-s of the 20th century neologisms were connected with lifestyles (belonger, ladies who lunch, theme pub); computerisation (laptop, to back up, to toggle); economics (sunrise industry, sunset industry, dawn raid); music (acid house, MTV, New Age music); mass media (video nasty, video piracy, tabloid television); art (crossfader, body-popping); medicine (to burn out, PWA, ME); education (baker day, City technology college; fashion (body conscious, leisure wear); cookery (jacket crisp, tapas). New words are everywhere., what kind of words can be defined as neologisms? Neologisms are words and expressions used for new concepts that appear in the course of the language development, new meanings of the already existing words and new names of old concepts. , the researchers have not been reached one general agreement on the question about neologism. Researchers with different knowledge backgrounds may define neologism in different ways.

Neologisms (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word") is word <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\word.htm>, term <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\term.htm>, or phrase <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\phrase.htm> which has been recently created - often to apply to new concepts, or to reshape older terms in newer language form.term "neologism" was itself coined around 1800 <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\1800.htm>; thus for some time in the early 19th century, the word "neologism" was itself a neologism. It can also refer to an existing word or phrase which has been assigned a new meaning.psychology <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\psychology.htm>, a neologism is a word invented by a person suffering from a language disorder, which may occur in the context of psychosis <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\psychosis.htm> or aphasia <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\aphasia.htm> acquired after brain damage <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\brain_damage.htm>; clinicians can sometimes use these neologisms, which often have meaning only to the subject, as clues to determine the nature of the disorder.theology <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\theology.htm>, a neologism is a relatively new doctrine (for example, rationalism <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\rationalism.htm>, also known as the rationalist movement, is a philosophical doctrine that asserts that the truth <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\truth> can best be discovered by reason and factual analysis, rather than faith <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\faith>, dogma <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\dogma> or religious teaching.). In this sense, a neologist is an innovator in the area of a doctrine or belief system, and is often considered heretical or subversive by the mainstream church. linguistics a neologism (from Greek <#"justify">The common thing is that neologism is not yet registered in dictionaries and in most cases it is a colloquial for the time being. term neologism is first attested in English in 1772, borrowed from French néologisme (1734). However, as early as the second half of the 18th century, it became obvious that the vocabulary of literary expression should and perhaps could not be fully limited. modern, neutral meaning of neologism appears early in the 19th century. The basic complications during the translation of neologisms, it is the explaining of the meaning of the new word. are especially useful in identifying inventions, new phenomena, or old ideas which have taken on a new cultural context. In general, neologisms may be introduced into English vocabulary because of the rapid progress of modern science and technology, political struggle, changes in social habits, economic development, etc. New words are being invented or introduced all the time.

However, those old words that hold the new meaning are also considered as neologisms. So far a general criterion for defining neologisms can be found: 1) neologisms are the words which didnt occur before and are newly built and currently enter into the common lexicons. 2) Neologisms are the words which within a certain period of time, have been widely accepted by people and still find their applications nowadays. 3) Neologisms are those old words which carry the new meanings.for the time of criteria for seclusion of new-foundation and neologism exactly to decide it is impossible, it has a sense to use subjective criteria: if it receive the collective language consciousness this or that lexical unit as a new.the sequent we will name it with the term neologism, any word for their comfort have the statue of lexical new-foundation, as the quality of own neologism.basic complications during the translation of neologisms, it is the explaining of the meaning of the new word.the translation of neologism, which meaning has already known to translator, the mission is easier and it solves by the way of using means, being suspended for the type of the word which belongs to that neologism.the new word absents in English-Russian dictionary, as it is need to try to find it in English-English dictionary.are New words Sections in many famous dictionaries. In that time recommends to use dictionaries of the last issue. Many neologisms we can find in dictionaries and sections about slangs. However, the dictionaries in objective causes cant wholly show in their all new-founded words, as for that lexis avoid to include in dictionaries such called occasional neologisms, individual new-founded, brought by the individual authors, such words also turns unlivable words and disappear as fast as they appear. Coming out from the term neologism we can assume, that the translator first meet with his own neologism, naturally he has no imagination, about that which is explained by him.

The translation of neologism, which meaning has already known to translator, the mission is easier and it solves by the way of using means, being suspended for the type of the word which belongs to that neologism. Neologisms often become accepted parts of the language. Other times, however, they disappear from common usage. or not a neologism continues as part of the language depends on many factors, probably the most important of which is acceptance by the public. Acceptance by linguistic experts and incorporation into dictionaries also plays a part, as does whether the phenomenon described by a neologism remains current, thus continuing to need a descriptor. It is unusual, however, for a word to enter common use if it does not resemble another word or words in an identifiable way. (In some cases however, strange new words succeed because the idea behind them is especially memorable or exciting). When a word or phrase is no longer "new," it is no longer a neologism. may take decades to become "old," though. Opinions differ on exactly how old a word must be to no longer be considered a neologism; cultural acceptance probably plays a more important role than time in this regard.

After being coined, neologisms invariably undergo scrutiny by the public and by linguists <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\linguist.htm> to determine their suitability to the language. Many are accepted very quickly; others attract opposition. Language experts sometimes object to a neologism on the grounds that a suitable term for the thing described already exists in the language. Non-experts who dislike the neologism sometimes also use this argument, deriding the neologism as "abuse and ignorance of the language.

Proponents of a neologism see it as being useful, and also helping the language to grow and change; often they perceive these words as being a fun and creative way to play with a language. Also, the semantic precision of most neologisms, along with what is usually a straightforward syntax, often makes them easier to grasp by people who are not native speakers of the language.outcome of these debates, when they occur, has a great deal of influence on whether a neologism eventually becomes an accepted part of the language. Linguists may sometimes delay acceptance, for instance by refusing to include the neologism in dictionaries; this can sometimes cause a neologism to die out over time. Nevertheless if the public continues to use the term, it always eventually sheds its status as a neologism and enters the language even over the objections of language experts.

1.2 The Classification of English Neologisms

English vocabulary has surpassed the number of 500,000 words with jargons excluded. According to the statistics of The Barnhart Dictionary Companion, there are 1,500 to 1,600 words and meanings inputting into the computer database each year (12). Classification of neologisms usually is made according to the following four standards:

) Neologisms can be classified according to their functions. Innumerable neologisms can be classified as either referential or expressive. Referential neologisms are neologisms created to fill the gap in a specific special field. They are produced to solve communication difficulties, for example, core dump (to clear out a computers memory). Expressive neologisms are neologisms developed to introduce new forms of expression into discourse, for example, open collar workers (people who work at home or telecommute).

) Neologisms can be classified according to their coinage processes. New words and expressions coming from old words and expressions but with new meanings. For example, killer (adj, very cool, powerful). New created words and expressions which are invented to describe new ideas and things, for example, internet, I-way (short form of information superhighway), and 411 (the latest information of gossip). Borrowed words and expressions, for example, masterpiece, Mao-tai, and haman .

) Neologism can be classified according to their formation. Neologisms in form, including the following structures: derivations (with prefixes and suffixes); compounds; phrases; shortenings (using initialisms, acronyms, clippings). For example, Pekingology, educationese and hard science. Semantic neologisms, including three types of processes: broadening or narrowing or change the meaning of the base form. For example, feedback, window, fallout. Borrowed neologisms, which are true borrowings and loan translations. For example, masterpiece, perestroika.

) Neologisms can be classified according to their sources, that is, according to where they come from. Scientific words or phrases created to describe new scientific discoveries or inventions, for example: Bluetooth, Broadband network, IW, Melatonin, Cyberstalking .

1.3The ways of formation of neologisms

is interesting to discuss how new words are formed. In any language, people express a new idea, describe a new process, and market a new product through three ways. A single way or a combination of any of these ways can produce large number of polysemous words. In general, there are three main methods of new word creation:

) By adding new meaning to existing words. Additional meanings are appended to the existing words. Many of the new words added to the ever-growing lexicon of the English language are just created from scratch, and often have little or no etymological pedigree. A good example is the word dog, etymologically unrelated to any other known word, which, in the late Middle Ages, suddenly and mysteriously displaced the Old English word hound (or hund) which had served for centuries. Some of the commonest words in the language arrived in a similarly inexplicable way (e.g. jaw, askance, tantrum, conundrum, bad, big, donkey, kick, slum, log, dodge, fuss, prod, hunch, freak, bludgeon, slang, puzzle, surf, pour, slouch, bash, etc).Words like gadget, blimp, raunchy, scam, nifty, zit, clobber, gimmick, jazz and googol have all appeared in the last century or two with no apparent etymology, and are more recent examples of this kind of novel creation of words. Additionally, some words that have existed for centuries in regional dialects or as rarely used terms, suddenly enter into popular use for little or no apparent reason (e.g. scrounge and seep, both old but obscure English words, suddenly came into general use in the early 20th Century).Sometimes, if infrequently, a "nonce word" (created "for the nonce", and not expected to be re-used or generalized) does become incorporated into the language. One example is James Joyce's invention quark, which was later adopted by the physicist Murray Gell-Mann to name a new class of sub-atomic particle, and another is blurb, which dates back to 1907.

Аnother well - known examples: English: footprint - an impact on our planet; Russian: мыло ("an email" - the new IT-slang meaning; "a soap" - the traditional meaning).

2) By borrowing words from other languages. New words are borrowed from other languages. It is a common way in vocabulary enlargement when the native language is unable to express the new and translation is still on the way to come out. It is possible to concern borrowings which are characterized by untypical for the English language by the distribution, by the morphological division and absence of motivation to strong neologisms. And although on this stage borrowings are on periphery of lexical system, they are still an integral part of innovations. For the last decade growth of borrowings from Japanese and Spanish has taking place. The main centers of attraction for new borrowings are: 1) art and culture: cinemateque (from French), karaoke (from Japanese); 2) social and political life: Ossi, Wessi (from German) - denotation of citizen of the East and West Germany; fatwa (from Arabic) - a legal decision or ruling given by Islamic religious leader; karoshi (from Japanese) - death caused by overwork or job-related exhaustion; 3) everyday life: taqueria (from Spanish) - a restaurant specializing in Mexican food, particularly tacos; otaku (from Japanese) - people who are obsessed with the trivia of a particular hobby; geek (from Danish) - unfashionable, boring or socially inept person;4) scientific and technical borrowings: biogeocenose (from Russian) - ecological system. result of borrowings is not only the addition to lexical composition of the language, the stylish colouring of lexical units changes in the process of borrowing and their inner structure homonymical relations are formed, that promotes, the variation of lexical units and partly predetermines it.

3) By rules of word-formation. The language produces new words by means of its formation rules. It is the need of society and the impetus of development of the language itself. words are being made up all the time. The shapes of words we know lead us to shape new words. John Algeo, a leading scholar of new words, has demonstrated that almost all new words have familiar origins (10). They are extensions of our established vocabular rather than completely new creations. The expansion of vocabulary in modern English depends chiefly on word-formation. There is variety of means being at work now. The most productive are affixation, compounding and conversion. According to Pyles and Algeo (10), words produced through affixation constitute 30% to 40% of the total number of new words; compounding yields 28% to 30% of all the new words; conversion gives us 26% of the new vocabulary. The rest of the new words come from shortening including clipping and acronymy, amounting to 8% to 10%, together with 1% to 5% of words born out of blending and other means. In the following pages those commonly used ways of word-formation will be investigated with examples for the purpose of a well explanation. is generally defined as the formation of words by adding derivational affixes to stems. Affixation is an effective way to increase the English vocabulary. Over 100 affixes exist in English, dozens of which are the most active, for example, a-, an-, au-, be-, co-, com-, con-, counter-, de-, dis-, en-, e-, inter- and so on. According to the positions which affixes occupy in words, affixation falls into two subclasses: 1) prefixation and 2) suffixation.

) Prefixation is the formation of new words by adding prefixes to stems. Prefixes do not generally change the word-class of the stem but only modify its meaning. It allows us to expand our vocabulary without specifically memorizing new words. However, present-day English finds an increasing number of class-changing prefixes, e.g. asleep a (a-+v), encourage v (en-+ n), unearth v (un-+n), de-oil v (de-+n), postwar a(post-+n), intercollege a (inter-+ti) and others. These make up only an insignificant number in the huge contemporary vocabulary. By the way of prefixation any new word, whatever its source, may almost immediately become the nucleus of a cluster of derivatives. Prefixes like pro- and docu- have been used to create words like prosultant and docudrama. Lets have a look at some examples:

=prefix: cyber- + speak =prefix: hyper- + link =prefix: inter- + not =prefix: intra- + net =prefix: un- + wired

development of computer circle is beyond peoples imagination. So is the production of affixes related with it. Originated in computer, compu- has formed many words, such as compudisk, computalk, computicket, compuword, compuspeak, computistical, computopia, computopolites. ecological issues are put on the important agenda, words related to eco are gaining more concerns. If people are not careful about their eco-activities, they may suffer ecocatastrophe. When ecoatmosphere and ecoclimate are destroyed, some species will come to ecocide and thus ecocrisis happens. At present, many ecologists are appealing for ecodevelopment (economic + ecological +development) in order for the eco-economic comprehensive benefit. Now many kinds of food sold at market as labeled Ecology Mark (chemical-free commodity). Ecotourism is getting popular in recent few years. striking example is the prefix e- which indicates something in the world of the Internet. With the benefit of hindsight, we now know that a more significant 1990 entry in the vocabulary was the prefix e- applied not just to e-mail (in use since 1982) but e-text and later e-payment, e-commerce, e-currency, and the like. According to a 2001 note in the Oxford English Dictionary, this e- was perhaps the most productive element in word ?formation of the late 1990s and early 2000s.

) Suffixation is the formation of new words by adding suffixes to stems. Unlike prefixes which primarily change the meaning of the stem, suffixes have only a small semantic role, their primary function being to change the grammatical function of stems. In other words, they mainly change the word class. Therefore, we shall group suffixes on a grammatical basis into noun suffixes, verb suffixes, adjective suffixes, etc. by noun suffix or adjective, we mean that when the suffix under discussion is added to the stem, whatever class it belongs to, the result will be a noun or an adjective. modern English, there are some seemingly productive vogue affixes like -nik (a person who becomes devoted to or a member of), which gives birth to quite a few words such as folknik (one fond of folk music), peacenik (devotee to peace), jazznik (jazz fan), protestnik (one who protests against sth.). But most of them, if not all, are still considered slang and have not been widely accepted. Therefore, they are not listed here. Familiar suffixes like -ism, -ed, and -aholic have helped create new words like ableism, gendered, and shopaholic. Lets take

ate for a more detailed discussion. The lure of creation with familiar elements is almost irresistible. Consider the suffix -ate, for example. It means action! The -ate changes a noun or adjective to a verb, thus making a new word (and often requiring minor changes to the end of the original word in the process). Put it at the end of a quiet word, and it springs into action. Add it to the noun origin, and you originate something; to the adjective valid, and you can validate what you originated. If it's active, you can activate it; if it's alien, you can alinate it; if it's equivocal, you can equivocate. And so on. Even when you can't separate the suffix from the rest of the word, a word ending in -ate usually means action. , also called composition, is the formation of new words by joining two or more stems. Words formed in this way are called compounds. Silkworm and honeybee are compounds; so are tear gas and easy chair. These examples show that compounds can be written solid (silkworm), hyphenated (honey-bee) and open (tear gas and easy chair). Moonlighting is a compound, as is scofflaw and doublespeak. can take place within any of the word classes, e.g. prepositions as without, throughout; conjunctions as however, moreover; pronouns as oneself, somebody; but the productive ones are nouns and adjectives followed on a rich variety of patterns and the internal grammatical relationship within the words are considerably complex.

Conversion is the formation of new words by converting words of one class to another class. This is a method of turning words of one part of speech to those of a different part of speech. These words are new only in a grammatical sense. Since the late Middle English period, when most of the inflections surviving from Old English finally disappeared, it has been easy to shift a word from one part of speech to another without altering form. Such method of word-formation is particularly productive in modern English. Conversion as the method of coinage of new words by derivation has considerably reduced its activity for the last years. Active models are mutual transitions of nouns and verbs, V?N and N?V: drive-by (a shooting carried out from a moving vehicle), add-in (something which is added to a computer or other system to improve in capabilities or perfomance), to mouse (to carry out by using a mouse), to reskill (to retrain workers in the skills required by a modern business). A new model appears: shortening of the phrase and substantivation of the adjective A?N, for example: plastic (credit cards, debit cards, and other plastic cards which can be used in place of money to pay for goods and services).as a result of the action of the law of language economy are also widely used among the word building methods of coinage neologisms. Thus a word has a tendency to shortening both initial and final elements of the structure. For example, burb - a suburb, a suburban area; rad - really good or exciting; cool, hip, awesome (from "radical"). Some innovations assimilate in the language, getting new signs: diss (an insult or put-down, from "disrespect"), or skell (a homeless person, a derelict, from "skeleton"). The others remain changeable shortened variants of existing equivalents in the language: aero (aerodynamic in design or appearance), impro (a form of live entertainment based on improvisation and interaction with the audience). It worth mentioning that the shortened words are most often used in the colloquial speech in the case when the speakers exactly know, what the question is about, and there is no need to use the initial variant of the certain also rather active method of word building and words-acronyms are often spread among linguists and become current, at first as fashionable words (buzz-words), later as comfortable colloquial forms. For example, FOB (a supporter of President William Jefferson Clinton; from "Friend Of Bill"), FAQ (a document, usually in electronic form online, containing a list of questions most often asked about a particular subject, usually with answers to them; from "Frequently Asked Questions") Acronyms from current phrases, also exist and function in the language, as for example: BTW (by the way) or TINA (there is no alternative).of the ways of forming new words in present - day English can be resorted to for the creation of new words whenever the occasion demands - these are called productive ways of forming words. Other ways of forming words cannot produce new words as readily and these are commonly termed non-productive or unproductive. For instance, affixation has been a productive way of forming new words ever since the Old English period, whereas, sound-interchange must have been at one time a productive word-building means but in Modern English its function is actually only to distinguish between different classes and forms of words.follows that productivity of word-building ways, individual derivational patterns and derivational affixes is understood as their ability of making new words which all who speak English find no difficulty in understanding , in particular their ability to create what is called occasional words or nonce-words (more unstable, serve the immediate purpose as compared to neologisms, but the border is very slight). The term means that the speaker coins such words when he needs them, if on another occasion the same word is needed again, he coins it afresh. Needless to say dictionaries do not as a rule record occasonal words.The following words may serve as illustration: collarless (appearance), a Dickensish ( office), to unlearn ( the rules), etc.word building method as blanding is rather widespread in the modern English, for example: Japanimation (animated cartoons produced in Japan). Thus both models with truncating of the component and models with truncating of both elements are active. In the first case first part of the compound word can be unchangeable (for example, netizen - network user, from "net" + "(cit)izen", mokney - inauthentic and affected imitation of cockney, from "mock" + "(cock)ney"), or its final element (for example, feminazi - a radical feminist, from "femi(nist)" + "nazi", emergicenter - a clinic offering emergency outpatient treatment, from "emerg(ency)" + "center"). Making up of the new telescope words has been activating during the last decades, where both elements are the subject to truncating, namely the final truncating of the first component and initial truncating of the following: edutainment (entertainment with an educational aspect; from "edu(cation)" + "(enter)tainment"), vegelate (chocolate which contains a certain proportion of vegetable fat other than cocoa butter, from "vege(table)" + "choco(late)").should also mention the reason why such word building ways as shortening, acronyms and blendings are so productive. It can be explained by their brevity and it is due to the ever-increasing tempo of modern life. In meeting the needs of communication and fulfilling the laws of information theory requiring a maximum signal in the minimum time the lexical system undergoes modification in its basic structure: namely it forms new elements not by their combining existing morphemes and proceeding from sound forms to their graphic representation but the other way round- coining new words form the initial letters of phrasal terms originating in texts. (7, p. 144).amount of neologisms on different topical groups depends on the development intensity of the corresponding kinds of peoples activity and on the degree of changes in the way of life of the society. It is worth mentioning that for the last time it gets more complicated to separate exactly terminological and current vocabulary as the wide usage of everyday technique is followed by the penetration of the great amount of the technical words in the everyday vocabulary. Popular-science TV-programs and articles of media also help the appearance of diffusion of words into the everyday colloquial speech. In general, according to the laws of language development there exist mechanisms which regulate the addition and anewing of the vocabulary thanks to the semantical innovations, supporting them in corresponding activity. Some of the new meanings of the old words become an integral part of the language, the others can find the resistance in the language usage.

2. Neologisms in contemporary system of language and speech

.1 Using of the neologisms in different spheres of human activity

There are many factors, which shape the development of language and have influence on it. All progressive things in different aspects and spheres of life reflected the vocabulary and language itself. Neologisms tend to occur more often in cultures which are rapidly changing, and also in situations where there is easy and fast propagation of information. Neologisms often become popular by way of mass media <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\mass_media.htm>, the Internet <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\internet.htm>, or word of mouth <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\word_of_mouth.htm>. Every word in a language was, at some time, a neologism, though most of these ceased to be such through time and acceptance. As for the time of criteria for seclusion of new-foundation and neologism exactly to decide it is impossible, it has a sense to use subjective criteria: if it receive the collective language consciousness this or that lexical unit as a new.

The new-foundation, if it results in periphery, as it gets more fasten demands and unchangeable in word fond. New-foundations (neologisms) presented in the language of science, techniques, art, politic, and in the same time as a neologism in speaking language. So we can distinguish the following types of neologisms:

·Scientific - words or phrases created to describe new scientific discoveries or inventions. Examples:

oblack hole <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\black_hole.htm> (1968). A black hole is a concentration of mass <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\mass> great enough that the force of gravity prevents anything from escaping from it except through quantum tunneling <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\quantum_tunneling> behavior.

olaser <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\laser.htm> (1960). A LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) is an optical source that emits photons <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\photons> in a coherent beam.

oquark <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\quark.htm> (1960). Quarks are one of the two basic constituents of matter <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\matter> in the Standard Model <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\standard_model> of particle physics <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\particle_physics>.

oradar <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\radar.htm> (1941). It is a system used to detect, range (determine the distance of), and map objects such as aircraft <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\aircraft> and rain <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\rain>.

oposterized <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\posterized.htm>. Posterization occurs when a region of an image with a continuous gradation of tone is replaced with several regions of fewer tones, resulting in an abrupt change from one tone to another. This creates an effect somewhat similar to that of a simple graphic poster <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\poster>.

obeetle bank (early 1990s). In agriculture <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\agriculture>, a beetle bank is a strip of grass <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\poaceae> or perennials <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\perennial> in a field <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\field> that provide habitat <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\habitat> which fosters and provides cover for insects <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\insect> hostile to pests. They are used as a form of biological pest control <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\biological_pest_control> to reduce or replace the use of insecticides <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\insecticide>.fiction <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\science_fiction.htm> concepts created to describe new, futuristic ideas. Examples:

·Ringworld <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\ringworld.htm> (1971) Ringworld is a Hugo <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\hugo_award> and Nebula <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\nebula_award> award-winning 1970 <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\1970_in_literature> science fiction <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\science_fiction.htm> novel by Larry Niven <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\larry_niven>, set in his Known Space <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\known_space> universe. The work is widely considered one of the classics of science fiction literature. It is followed by three sequels, and it ties in to numerous other books in the Known Space universe.

·Dyson Sphere <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\dyson_sphere.htm> (circa 1960) A Dyson sphere is a hypothetical megastructure <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\megastructure> first described in 1960 <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\1960> by the physicist <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\physicist> Freeman Dyson <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\freeman_dyson> in a short paper published in the journal Science <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\science_(journal)> entitled "Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infra-Red Radiation". Another examples:

·cyperspace <#"justify">Political - words or phrases created to make some kind of political or rhetorical point. Example:

·political correctness <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\political_correctness.htm> (1990). Political correctness (also politically correct, P.C. or PC) is a term used in English-speaking countries <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\english-speaking_countries> to describe real or perceived attempts to impose limits on the acceptable language and terms used in public discussion. While it usually refers to a linguistic phenomenon, it is sometimes extended to cover political ideology <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\ideology> or public behavior.

·sie and hir <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\sie_and_hir.htm> (neologisms). Sie and hir are two terms proposed to serve as gender-neutral third person <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\grammatical_person> singular <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\grammatical_number> personal pronouns <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\pronoun> in English <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\english_language> . These neologisms <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\neologism.htm> are used by some people who feel that there are problems with gender-specific pronouns because they imply sex <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\sex> and/or gender <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\gender_role>. However, sie and hir are very rare compared to other solutions and most commentators feel that it is unlikely that they will catch on.

·meritocracy <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\meritocracy.htm> (1958) As the suffix "-cracy" implies, meritocracy is strictly speaking a system of government <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\government> based on rule by ability (merit) rather than by wealth or social position. In this context, "merit" means roughly intelligence plus effort. However, the word "meritocracy" is now often used to describe a type of society <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\society> where wealth, income, and social status <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\social_status> are assigned through competition <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\competition>, on the assumption that the winners do indeed deserve (merit) their resulting advantage. As a result, the word has acquired a connotation <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\connotation> of Social Darwinism <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\social_darwinism>, and is used to describe aggressively competitive societies, with large inequality <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\inequality> of income and wealth, contrasted with egalitarian <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\egalitarianism> societies.

·dog-whistle politics <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\dog-whistle_politics.htm> (1990). Dog-whistle politics is a term used to describe a type of political campaigning which is "only heard" by a specific intended audience. It is usually used pejoratively by those that do not approve of the tactics.

·genocide <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\genocide.htm>. Genocide is the systematic killing of substantial numbers of people on the basis of ethnicity <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\ethnicity>, religion <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\religion>, political opinion <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\politics>, social status <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\social_status> or other particularity. culture - words or phrases evolved from mass media content or used to describe popular culture phenomena (these may be considered a subsection of slang <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\slang.htm>). Examples:

·jumping the shark <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\jumping_the_shark.htm>. Jumping the shark is a metaphor <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\metaphor> used by US <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\united_states> television <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\television> critics <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\critic> and fans since the 1990s <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\1990s>. The phrase, popularized by Jon Hein <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\w\index.php@title=jon_hein&action=edit> on his website <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\website>,, is used to describe the moment when a pop culture <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\popular_culture> icon, originally a TV show <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\television_program> or similar episodic medium, is in retrospect judged to have passed its "peak" and shows a noticeable decline in quality, or when it has undergone too many changes that take away the original charm and interest.

·Chuck Cunningham syndrome <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\chuck_cunningham_syndrome.htm>. Chuck Cunningham syndrome is a term that refers to a television series <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\television_series> in which a main character or a character otherwise important to the show's plot is removed without explanation. The term comes from the character Chuck Cunningham in the American television series, Happy Days <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\happy_days>.

·Baldwin (a good-looking man, such as one of the Baldwin family of actors)

·Scooby Gang (a group which humorously resembles the teens on the cartoon Scooby-Doo <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\scooby-doo.htm>)

Imported - words or phrases originating in another language. Typically they are used to express ideas that have no equivalent term in the native language. Examples:

·zen <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\zen.htm> (1727). Zen is the Japanese <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\japan> name of a well known branch of Buddhist <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\buddhism> schools, practiced originally in China <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\china>, and subsequently in Korea <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\korea>, Japan <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\japan>, and Vietnam <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\vietnam>. Zen emphasizes the role of sitting meditation <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\meditation> (zazen <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\zazen>) in pursuing enlightenment <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\bodhi>. Zen can be considered a religion <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\religion>, a philosophy <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\philosophy>, or simply a practice depending on one's perspective. It has also been described as a way of life, work, and an art form. Zen is the common name for this branch of Buddhism in Japanese <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\japanese_language> as well as in English <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\english_language>. However, in the last half of the 20th century, Zen has become an international phenomenon, with centers in many countries around the world.

·anime <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\anime.htm> (1988). Anime - is Japanese <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\japan> animation <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\animation>, sometimes referred to by the portmanteau <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\portmanteau.htm> Japanimation. It is often characterized by stylized colorful images depicting vibrant characters <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\fictional_character> in a variety of different settings and storylines, aimed at a wide range of audiences. Anime is usually influenced by Japanese comics <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\comics> known as manga <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\manga.htm>.

·detente <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\d_25c3_25a9tente.htm> (1960s). Détente is French for relaxation. It was also the general reduction in the tension between the Soviet Union <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\soviet_union> and the United States <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\united_states> and a weakening of the Cold War <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\cold_war>, occurring from the late 1960s <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\1960s> until the start of the 1980s. More generally, it may be applied to any international situation where previously hostile nations not involved in an open war "warm up" to each other and threats de-escalate.<file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\trademark.htm> are often neologisms to ensure they are distinguished from other brands. If legal trademark protection is lost, the neologism may enter the language as a genericized trademark <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\genericized_trademark.htm>.: Laundromat <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\laundromat.htm>. A laundromat (U.S.), launderette (British), Washette (Southeastern U.S.) or washateria (Southwestern U.S.) is a store where clothes <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\clothes> are washed and dried. This is often done by coin operated machines that are worked by the client. Laundromats may have a staff to wash the clothing; this is referred to as Fluff-n-Fold or drop-off service. Laundries are equipped with both washing machines <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\washing_machine> and dryers, usually specialized ones designed to survive heavy use.


Many neologisms have come from popular literature, and tend to appear in different forms. Most commonly, they are simply taken from a word used in the narrative of a book; for instance, McJob <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\mcjob.htm>(McJob is slang <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\slang.htm> for a low-pay, low-prestige job that requires few skills and offers very little chance of intracompany advancement. The term comes from the fast-food restaurant <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\fast-food_restaurant> McDonald's <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\mcdonald_2527s>, but applies to any low-status job where little training <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\training> is required and workers' activities are tightly regulated by managers. Most perceived McJobs are in the service industry, particularly fast food <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\fast_food>, copy shops, and retail sales <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\retailer>.) from Douglas Coupland <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\douglas_coupland.htm>'s Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\generation_x_3a_tales_for_an_accelerated_culture.htm> and cyberspace <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\cyberspace.htm> from William Gibson <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\william_gibson_(novelist).htm>'s Neuromancer <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\neuromancer.htm>. Sometimes the title of the book will become the neologism. Lewis Carroll <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\lewis_carroll.htm>'s poem "Jabberwocky <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\jabberwocky.htm>" has been called "the king of neologistic poems" as it incorporated some dozens of invented words.

·Nonce words <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\nonce_word.htm> - words coined and used only for a particular occasion, usually for a special literary effect.

·Inverted - words that are derived from spelling (and pronouncing) a standard word backwards. Example: redrum <file:///C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Леся\Рабочий%20стол\neologizm\wikipedia\\wiki\redrum>

·Paleologism - a word that is alleged to be a neologism but turns out to be a long-used (if obscure) word. Used ironically.

2.2 Analysis of computer neologisms in modern English

and technical revolution as one of the major phenomena of the present makes essential changes to the linguistic model of the world. There are many factors, which shape the development of a language. In particular, the rapid development of new computer technologies and methods for processing information inevitably influences the formation of new words and lexical meanings. The influence of these factors is increasing, however, since technological and scientific progress goes on faster now than ever before in history and especially technologys influence in our lives is increasing. this paper I am taking a look into neologisms created by one field of modern technology and science that is very popular: the Internet and computer science. Technical terminology is closely related to the development of science. The creation of new terms should go hand in hand with such development, though this would be complicated for terminologists, translators and linguists, since technologies and science advance at such a rapid pace that by the time they gather the information to try to create glossaries or terminology databases, their content may be obsolete.the recent years, for example, computer technology has added a significant number of new terms to the language. "Webinar," "malware," "netroots", and "blogosphere" are just a few examples of modern-day neologisms that have been integrated into the modern English language. But the appearance of new words doesnt only enrich the vocabulary of language, but also implies a serious problem for translators in finding lexical equivalents of neologisms in the target language.translation of neologisms in general and of IT neologisms in particular, is a translators most difficult task due to their characteristic of newness. For this reason, the translator has to find ways to transfer the whole denotation of the terms into the target language so that receptors can understand them. Usually interpreters come across the problem of being unable to find a suitable equivalent in the source language. Thus, they are to use lexical and lexica-grammatical transformations in order to convey the meaning implied by the author of the message.problem of translation of new words which appear in the sphere of computer technologies ranks high on the list of challenges facing translators because such words are not readily found even in the newest specialized dictionaries. Dictionaries lag behind changes in languages as they can not register the new words immediately. Therefore, translators have to find out the meaning of very new neologisms mainly based on the context (a sentence, paragraph, chapter or even the whole document) in which the word is used. Neologisms are usually formed on the basis of words and morphemes that already exist in the language (googling, HTML, hyperlink). Correspondingly, the analysis of these words and morphemes is an additional helpful tool in finding out and transferring the meaning of the neologism used by the author., there is no such thing as an absolute rule for dealing with technical neologism. However, there are some strategies that should be taken into consideration to make the translation more and more effective. Firstly, the translator should give special treatment to neologisms that are key terms in the text. Secondly, he should find out the definition of the primary neologisms to understand their meanings and pay attention to recognized translations of the terms before producing his own one. Finally, he should acknowledge for whom his translation is, that is who the target reader is. There may be other factors that also determine the appropriate translation of a technical neologism, but the three enumerated above are among the most important ones., it has to be underlined that the translation of technical neologisms is especially important to technical translators, who are mostly engaged in the new technology transfer process. Together with such a rapid development of science and technology at present, new terminologies appear in unquantifiable numbers to nominate new objects and phenomena, new processes and new inventions. Thus it is definitely a very complicated and uneasy task.1 comprises examples of different neologisms. These examples illustrate the practical using of such peculiarities and typical features. Thus, we can see that the most common feature used in such neologisms is compounding. There is the most frequently found peculiarity. We think that it is because of the language aspiration for reduction (or shortening). are some examples:- Describes a person or technology that uses wireless communications to access the Internet. (conv) - A person for whom no information appears in an Internet search engine, particularly Google.(comp+pref)- a tightwad with bytes (comp) byte+wad- a short, sitcom-style video available over the internet (comp) bit+computer - The next great patented technology (bw+comp)- A large area of land where computer and technology companies are concentrated, or that has been constructed with a high-tech communications infrastructure (comp) cyber+park- The practice of obtaining and holding an Internet domain name that uses a company's registered trademark name. Also: cyber-squatting. - The purchase of an Internet domain name that includes a company's registered trademark name, with the intention of selling the domain name to the company. Also: cyber-piracy or cyber piracy. -cyberpirate, n. Also: cyber-pirate or cyber - The technology required to identify and track a person using face recognition techniques. (comp)- A person who puts up a profile on a social networking website such as Friendster or MySpace that contains false or misleading information, or that is dedicated to another person or to an object. (bd+suff) spot - A Web site that experiences a massive surge in traffic, usually in response to an event or promotion. (comp)- A hypertextual manuscript. (af)- Using a portable camera to broadcast one`s activities over the Internet 24 hours a day. (comp) life+castrot - The gradual obsolescence of the link on a Web page as the sites they point to become unavailable. (wc)- An e-mail that is referring to other e-mails (af)- A short program, or the edited highlights from a longer program, designed to be watched on a small, mobile screen such as a digital media player or a mobile phone (comp) mobile+episode- sending text messages while standing outside on a smoking break (comp) Smoke+text- delivering video programming aimed at an extremely small audience (comp) Sliver+cast.these peculiarities we distinguished new meanings, borrowings, special word formation, which consist of: affixation, prefixation, suffixation, compounding, conversion, abbreviations and acronyms, word combinations and blending. about word formation in generally and preffixation in particular I would like to pay attention to prefix -cyber. The prefix cyber- appears with astounding frequency on the Internet in ever-new combinations. The Oxford Dictionaries of New Words gives the following definition: The first element of a wide variety of terms relating to computer-mediated electronic communications, particularly those which came to general prominence in the eighties and nineties, such as ELECTRONIC mail and the INTERNET.(16)definition is absolutely accurate. The Oxford Dictionary of New Words lists 25 neologisms within this entry and the edition used as reference for this paper is already seven years old. More recent additions include cyberpatrol (software to prevent minors from accessing adult oriented sites), cyberkids (self explanatory; also the name of an internet community for children) (20) and cyberterrorism (also self explanatory) to name just a few, all of which may also appear with a dash separating/connecting the prefix. More, if you type in cyber (indicating cyber followed by any word it is combined with) in any search engine of your choice, there will be more hits turning up than you will easily be able to read let alone examine thoroughly. It is clear that this prefix is one of the most productive neologisms ever and with the constant growth of the Internet is likely to become the most productive prefix in the history of linguistics. has come a long way, it is itself a back-formation, its current meaning hailing from a science-fiction novel called Neuromancer which was first published 1984 and which has acquired cult status and gave rise to its own category of science-fiction called cyberpunk, before that, there was and still is cybernetics (first appearance 1948), a science which borders electronics, biology and medicine, aiming towards controlled interfacing between machines and living organisms and which itself derives from old Greek kubernetes, which means steersman (16). I speculate that cyber- is a neologism which will stand the test of time and not vanish from active use before long. This might not apply to all formations it is parent to, however.all of them were so popular as compounding but they accompany the words and describe our feelings in the text. result of our researching the peculiarities of neologisms and their using in computer language we can see in the diagram below.neologisms concerning the Internet are at least in context easy to understand comparing with the other neologisms. I speculate that this is mainly due to the number, educational level and target group of the people who come up with these neologisms. The Internet is at least in theory accessible to everyone. Similarly, everyone can post something in an Internet forum or put something up on their homepage. If it is a really good idea or if a new term is a somehow really catchy the term might be picked up by others, spread on the internet and finally find its way into an entry in language and dictionaries. Therefore, the neologisms are created on an average intellectual base and are understandable by everyone who has at least some knowledge about the Internet. Due to the limited scope this paper can offer I will focus my view, concerning the Internet, on neologisms coined for the social aspect of the Internet. This includes people who work on or in the Internet as well as those neologisms, which describe things like Internet addiction and other phenomena.


our work, we tried to give a presentation of all aspects of such a linguistic event as neologisms. Nowadays around 4000 words enter English vocabulary every year which reflects the fast development of the language and makes the phenomena interesting to analyze. But the problem with neologism is that its meaning is sometimes un-comprehendible. a literary concept and term, neologism appeared in the 18th century and its old meaning was synonymous to «barbarism». In the modern meaning of neologism appeared early in the 19th century and, gained the acceptance towards the end of the century.

In our research we try to study the neologisms as units of language, to determine the basic theoretical conceptions of the neologism; to investigate the classification and ways of formation of neologisms. We analyzed the spheres of usage of the neologisms and can say that new words appear everywhere. Neologisms of economy sphere and business represent the radical changes which are connected with the circulation and realization of economic theories, with transition of many countries to the market economy, with the improvement of management by an economy and its separate links, with introduction of modern informative technique. Neologisms of social and political sphere show two sides of the civilized progress of humanity - integrational and differential processes, political and public motions, testify about growth of influence on the innovative processes of such factors, as age, social status and others. Important role in society of mass media, predetermines that fact, that exactly "media" is the sphere of "primitive context", by the main channel of spreading of neologisms, which are the product of word building of state, political, public figures, journalists, writers, scientists. Computerizing made substantial alterations in the word building system, generated the whole row of new productive derevative elements in system of language.

We investigated the computer neologisms, their peculiarities, tried to perform an analysis of computer neologisms according to the word building type, sphere of usage, to the source and time of appearance, meaning and translation. We came to the conclusion that the most common feature used in such neologisms is compounding. There is the most frequently found peculiarity. We think that it is because of the language aspiration for reduction (or shortening). these peculiarities we distinguished new meanings, borrowings, special word formation, which consist of: affixation, prefixation, suffixation, compounding, conversion, abbreviations and acronyms, word combinations and blending. Unlike numerous (even for enough short time) lexical and phraseology neologisms new word building elements do not arise up suddenly, the amount of affixes in a language almost is exactly known. The most productive prefixes of computer neologisms are e-, cyber-, en-, inter-.

A new vocabulary and phraseology which arose up in connection with informative revolution pierces now almost all spheres of social life, it removes both the numerous blessings and benefits and new social problems, negative consequences of modern stage of scientific and technical progress.


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.Online dictionary of neologisms; internet site: #"justify">19.#"justify">Appendix

have found and analyzed about two hundred neologisms. Most of them are widely spread in the sphere of Computer Science. The peculiarities of formation of these neologisms are marked by the following symbols:

)affixation (af)

)prefixation (pref)

)suffixation (suff)

)compounding (comp)

)conversion (conv)

)Abbreviations and acronyms (abr)

)word combinations (wc)

)blending (bd)

)new meaning (nm)

) borrowing (bw)- a person that spends way too much time either surfing the Web or fussing their home page- to use a computer simulation to model an existing or historical weather pattern (comp) after+cast-measuring of artificial intelligence as in the results of a Turing test (abr)- a Web page consisting of frequently updated, chronological entries on a particular topic (bw)- a tightwad with bytes (comp) byte+wad- a short, sitcom-style video available over the internet (comp) bit+computer - The tiny bits of paper left over from the punching data cards (bw) - a small image that links to a syndication file for a web site, particularly blog - to implant a microchip, particularly a radio frequency identification transformer, into an animal or person (bw)- a pattern of Web surfing behavior that uniquely identifies the person doing the surfing (comp) click+printpage - a Web page that hasnt been updated in a long time(abr+nm) - The next great patented technology (bw+comp)- A large area of land where computer and technology companies are concentrated, or that has been constructed with a high-tech communications infrastructure (comp) cyber+parkAlt-Delete - A metaphoric mechanism with which one can reset, restart, or rethink something (comp+abr) - The purchase of an Internet domain name that includes a companys registered trade mark (comp) cyber+privacyside hacker - A hacker who uses his or her talents for malicious or criminal ends. (wc+nm)baloney - Web page-based animated images, Java applets, and other bells and whistles that are not only useless, but also detract from the overall quality of the page. (wc+nm)- The collection of networks and other technologies that enable people to illegally share copyrighted digital files with little or no fear of detection. (bd) dark + internetlink - A Web page link that points to a file within a site rather than the site's home page. (wc) - Computer hardware and software and other organs of digital technology, taken as a whole. (af)- A person who makes a living from domain name speculation or by purchasing popular domain names and filling the sites with advertising. (af)dial - To drop a user's existing Internet connection and then dial up a new connection that offers a service (such as a video or concert) over a premium-rate phone line. (comp)mail bankruptcy - The state of being unable or unwilling to read and respond to all the e-mail messages one has received, and so to delete those messages and start over again. (comp+nm)- Internet access that is instantly and always available from a number of different devices. (bd)- A related set of facial characteristic that a computer use to recognize a person`s face. (bd)- Discarded computers, monitors, and other electronic equipment. (af)hacker - A computer hacker who attempts to infiltrate a secure computersin an effort to learn the system`s weaknesses so that can be repaired.(comp)mail - is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks.(comp)commerce - or e-comm, refers to the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks.(Comp)book - electronic book (nm+comp) - A database of faces used in the computer-based recognition and identification of a face. (bd) face+bacetechnology - The technology required to identify and track a person using face recognition techniques. (comp)- A person who puts up a profile on a social networking website such as Friendster or MySpace that contains false or misleading information, or that is dedicated to another person or to an object. (bd+suff) - The practice of creating faked photographs, usually by manipulating the images with software. (bd+suff)- The special effect camera movements in film where the camera may fly through places where a normal camera could not be placed. More specifically these camera movements mix actual live action camera movements and 3D animation special effects. (aff)campaign - A lobbying effort that uses the Internet and other technologies to quickly establish an agenda and build support. (comp)- A meeting in the flesh, especially one composed of people who usually or only converse online. (bd) flesh + meeting- In view of the various internet, phone and mail scams. (bd) fool+monger- To kill a character in a computer game. (nm+wc)- On a social networking website, to add a person to one's list of acquaintances, and vice versa. (nm+wc)- Randomly adjusting the settings of an object, such as the dials on a piece of equipment or the options in a software program, in an effort to learn how the object works. (af)- A functional cyborg; an organism that has become a kind of cyborg by extending its senses and abilities using technology. (bd) functional + cyborg- someone who gives lame advice (comp) Feed+hackrich-click - Relating to people who wants to get rich either through online investigating or by creating an Internet-related business (comp+nm)- The business entity or Web services created by the merger of Google and YouTube (comp+nm) Google+YouTube - To display a company's ad when a person visits a rival company's Web site. (af)gap - The disparity between executives who approve or oversee technological projects that they don't understand and the information technology workers who implement and maintain those projects. (comp)- A non-spam e-mail message; a legitimate e-mail message that is blocked or filtered because it contains one or more keywords normally associated with spam messages. (nm)- Programmer's term for a software bug that alters its behavior when you try to isolate it or examine it. (!!!)spot - A Web site that experiences a massive surge in traffic, usually in response to an event or promotion. (comp)- A hypertextual manuscript. (af)- Any real or imagined electromechanical technology that enhances the musculo-skeletal system. (af)- Wearable or ingested computer technology that monitors internal body functions. (bd)- Literature in the scientific sense, meaning published papers, on the Internet. (bd)filter - An email program filter that has been configured to automatically delete incoming messages that contain certain jargon terms or buzzwords. (comp)Waltz - The computer poetry movement (comp) plaque - The dirt, dust, and other grime that gather on keyboard (comp)- A young, malicious hacker who isnt smart enough to create custom hacking software, so must rely on programs created by other people (comp) kid+idiot - In a computer game, a list of the enemies that a player killed (comp) kill+board- Using a portable camera to broadcast one`s activities over the Internet 24 hours a day. (comp) life+castrot - The gradual obsolescence of the link on a Web page as the sites they point to become unavailable. (wc)- The academic study of games, particularly video games.(bd) bomb - A computer virus set for a timed release. When the virus detonates, it deliberately disrupts, modifies, or erases data. (wc)- doing to others before they do unto you.(suff+pref)- 1) Piece of wood. 2) log on\off to surf the net (conv)page - A Web page capitalizing on a current fad (wc)- A small foot-print Web browser (suff+comp)area network - A next-generation car with an electronic system that includes amenities such as Global Positioning Satellite receivers s well as sensors to monitoring lights, engine, climate control, road conditions, and more (wc)- An e-mail that is referring to other e-mails (af)- A short program, or the edited highlights from a longer program, designed to be watched on a small, mobile screen such as a digital media player or a mobile phone (comp) mobile+episode- Swithes gates, transistors and other electronic devices build on a molecular scale (bd) - Mobile social software; a software that enables you to use your mobile phone to find an interact with people near you (abr)potato - A person who spends a lot of time at the computer (wc)- A technique that forces a user to remain on a particular Web page (nm)movie - An interactive movie CD- or Internet-based movie that enables viewers to choose from several different plot lines (wc)- Forwarded messages, jokes, lists, and other unsolicited noncommercial e-mail messages sent by an individual to a large number of people (nm+comp) Meat+loaf- A computer with an Intel microprocessor running the Macintosh operating system and software (comp) Macintosh+telephone- A letter, e-mail, or other message that insults, criticizes, or attempts to intimidate the recipient. (comp) nasty + gram- An Internet-based company. (bd) Internet + company- Browser's knowledge. (nm+wc)- What the Internet is said to be suffering from on the days when response times and download times are slower than usual.(bd)- A conversation with no subject, especially in chat. (bd)spam - Unwanted or unnecessary messages sent over a corporate e-mail system. (wc)feed - To post to a Wiki. (comp+wc)line wonder - A Web page that contains only a single useful link.(comp+wc)P - 1. Describes a network or other technology that enables users to trade files directly without requiring a central database or server. 2. Person-to-person adj. Describes a payment service that enables one individual to pay another for an online transaction (such as an auction sale). (abr+nm+conv)jack - To steal a Web page and submit it to search engines under a different address. Users who run a search and attempt to access the page are then routed to another-usually pornographic-site. (comp+nm)- Creating a replica of an existing Web page to fool a user into submitting personal, financial, or password data. (nm)fluid - Term used by programmers to refer to coffee, Jolt cola, or any other high-caffeine stimulant that helps them get through all-night coding sessions. (comp)dance - A mostly ceremonial sequence of actions performed in the hope that they will solve a computer problem (wc) - Malicious software that encrypts a person`s computer files and demands a ransom to decrypt the files. (aff)only user - A person who uses the Internet exclusively for reading Web pages, e-mail, and newsproups instead of creating their own content.(comp+wc)- 1) The inability for a computer to maintain stability at crucial moments.

) A computer problem arousing feelings of intense fear, horror, and distress. (comp+conv)- sending text messages while standing outside on a smoking break (comp) Smoke+text- delivering video programming aimed at an extremely small audience (comp) Sliver+castattack -A series of minor computer crimes - slices of a large crime - that are different to detect and trace (wc+nm)- The informal, decentralized system of transmitting texts, particularly jokes, over the Internet (nm+comp) jack - To include in a Web page popular, but superfluous, search terms in order to appear in the result when people search for those terms (wc+nm)- Your name garbled in a computer (nm)memo - A memo letter, or e-mail message that contains irrefutable evidence or crime (wc)- The transfer of files form one computer to another using a floppy disk or another removable medium (comp+nm) - the practice of winning in an online auctions (suf+nm)media - Online sites and technologies that enable people to contribute or share content, discuss, rate, or categorize content with each other (wc)- 1) The waves or smell of the sea breaking on the shore or a reef. 2) To search the information on the net. (conv)Trojan horse - a Trojan horse program sent as an attachment in an e-mail message that has a subject line, body, text, and return address that have been created to fool the recipient into opening the attachment (wc)creep - The gradual encroachment of technology into every aspect of society (comp) techno+creepbutler - A hotel stuff member who performs computer-related tasks and helps guests with software and hardware problems (wc)- a person, who registers one or more Internet names(comp)- 1) A short unit that contains connected sentences. 2) To chat in the net.

(conv)u - A verbal shortcut for the always awkward www part of a Web address (nm+abr) - An extremely small. lightweight computer that has many of the functions and features of a full-size personal computer abbreviation From ultra-mobile personal computer.(abr)- A Web page link that appears on almost everyone`s hotlist. (bd)- Describes a person or technology that uses wireless communications to access the Internet. (conv) - A person for whom no information appears in an Internet search engine, particularly Google.(comp+pref)- A person who watches video content online or on a computer, or who combines regular TV watching with related digital content. (bd) view+user- Podcasting video content. (bd) video + podcasting- A blog that contains mostly video. (comp) video+blog- An animated image that appears over a Web page`s regular content and that, when clicked takes the user to an advertisement or promotional site. (bd)k - shortened form of Windows 2000 (abr+nm) bug - A small, invisible image embedded into HTML-formatted e-mail message or a Web site and uses to track the activity of users who read the message or visit the site. (wc+nm) - A form of English to some on-line documents and communications. (aff) cramming - A scam in which a person or small business accepts an offer for a free Web site, to be subsequently charged a monthly free on their phone bill.(wc)Fi - Wireless fidelity (abr) - A collaborative Web site that allows to add, edit, and delete the site`s content (abr) OK - Describes the lack of serious computer problem resulting from the changeover from 1999-2000 (abr)- A high-school yearbook on CD-ROM (comp)- 2 to the power of 80 (approximately 10 to the power of 24) (bd)computer - A computer containing a hidden software program that enables the machine to be controlled remotely, usually to perform an attack on another computer. (comp+nm)mail - An incoming e-mail message without any body text or attachments. (comp)day - Relating to a computer security vulnerability that is explotoited before the vulnerability is known to security experts (wc+nm)

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