The characteristic features of Washington

 















The characteristic features of Washington


CONTENTS

washington america capital

INTRODUCTIONI. Washington IS The capital of the USA

1.1 General information about the city

.2 The history of Washington

Chapter II. Excursion on Washington

2.1 The White House

.2 Pentagon Building

.3 The Supreme Court Building

.4 The Library of Congress

.5 The United States Capitol

BIBLIOGRAPHY


INTRODUCTION

, D.C., is the capital of the United States. It is also one of the countrys most beautiful and historic cities and the site of many of its most popular tourist attractions. Washington lies in the southeastern United State, between Maryland and Virginia. It is the only American city that is not a part of a state. Washington covers the entire area of the District of Columbia, a section of land that is under the jurisdiction of the federal government. The population of Washington is 3,250,822.year, millions of people from all parts of the United States and from other countries visit Washington. They go there to see such important government buildings as the United States Capitol, where Congress meets, and the White House, where the president lives and works. They also tour the citys many museums, which together house the worlds largest collection of items from Americas past.of Washingtons buildings and monuments are magnificent white marble structures. Scenic parks and gardens, and - in springtime - gorgeous blossoms of Japanese cherry trees, add natural beauty to the manmade splendor of the area.object of the research is Washington DC. The subject is the main characteristic features of Washington DC, its history and places of interest.purpose of the present work is to observe the characteristic features of Washington DC, to study its history and places of interest including important government buildings such as the United States Capitol and the White House.

To achieve this purpose it is necessary to solve the following tasks:

.to observe communication, private business and social problems of the city;

.to determine the main historic events of the city;

.To study the main information about the White House;

.To study the main information about Pentagon Building;

.To study the main information about the Supreme Court Building;

.To study the main information about the Library of Congress;

.To study the main information about the United States Capitol.the paper consists of introduction, two chapters focused on the general information about Washington DC, its history and places of interest, conclusion and bibliography.


Chapter I. Washington DC. The capital of the USA

information about the city

Washington, D.C, is the capital of the United States. It is also one of the most beautiful and historic cities and the site of many of many of its most popular tourist attractions.serves as the headquarters of the federal government. The president of the United States, the members of Congress, the Supreme Court justices, and about 374,000 other federal government employees work in the Washington area. Decisions made by government leaders in the city affect the lives of people throughout the United States and, sometimes, in other parts of the world. For example, the president suggests laws to Congress and directs U.S. relations with other countries. The members of Congress pass laws that every American citizen must obey. The Supreme Court justices decide whether the governments laws and practices are constitutional. Washington is important to the American people in another way. The city is a symbol of their countrys unity, history, and democratic tradition., D.C., lies along the northeast bank of the Potomac River. The city covers 179 square kilometers and has a population of 638,432. The state of Maryland borders Washington on the north, east, and south. Virginia lies the Potomac River to the west and south.communities of Maryland and Virginia surround Washington. The city and its suburbs form a metropolitan area that covers 10,249 square kilometres and has a population of 3,250,822.United States Capitol stands near the center of Washington. Broad streets extend out from the Capitol in all directions like the spokes of a wheel. These streets, together with the Mall that extends west from the Capitol, divide Washington into four sections. The sections are Northwest, Northeast, Southeast, and Southwest. Each section is named for its direction from the Capitol. Each address in Washington is followed by one of four abbreviations and their meanings are: NW (Northwest), NE (Northeast), SE (Southeast), and SW (Southwest). [1, p. 76].

Northwest section is Washingtons largest section. The Northwest section is also Washingtons main center of cultural, economic, and government activity. The southern part of Northwest Washington includes the White House and the many government buildings near it. Washingtons, main shopping districts lie in the Northwest section.

Northeast section is chiefly a residential area, and has both middle-class and low-income neighbourhoods.

Southeast section is a wealthy residential neighbourhood of luxury blocks of flats and restored old houses. There is an old-fashioned market called the Eastern Market. Farmers from the area around Washington come to the market to sell such products as fresh fruit and vegetables, cider, eggs, and flowers.

Southwest section. Almost all of Southwest Washington has been rebuilt since the 1950s as part of a major urban renewal program. As a result, the section has many relatively new houses, flats and office buildings.[3, p. 124].is one of the few cities in the world that was designed before it was built. President George Washington chose the citys site in 1791. He hired Pierre Charles LEnfant, a French engineer, to draw up plans for the city. Washington replaced Philadelphia as the nations capital in 1800. LEnfant and other members of a commission appointed to plan the city named in honour of George Washington. The D.C. in the citys name stands for District of Columbia.70 per cent of Washingtons people are blacks. No other major American city has so large a percentage of black people. Whites make up about 27 per cent of the citys population. The other 3 per cent includes small groups of American Indians and Asians - especially Chinese, Filipinos, and Japanese. 41,000 people who live in Washington are citizens of countries other than the United States. Many of these people work for foreign embassies or for international organizations in the city. The foreign population includes people from almost every country, and gives the city an international flavor.has some of the nations most luxurious housing, including the Watergate apartments and the mansions and town houses of Georgetown. It also has much good middle-class housing. However, the city faces a shortage of good housing for low-income, as well as moderate-income, families. This housing shortage exists in both the city and the suburbs, and ranks among the biggest problems experienced in the Washington area.problemsfaces a variety of social problems. Among of them are poverty and crime., the people of Washington have a high standard of living. But thousands of people do not share in this wealth.of the crime in the Washington area takes place in the city, especially in poor neighbourhoods. But in recent years, crime rates have been rising more rapidly in the suburbs than in the city. Washingtons crime problem receives more nationwide publicity than that of any other city with the possible exception of New York City. Whenever a government official is the victim of a crime, the news is reported throughout the country. As a result, many people believe Washington has one of the nations highest crime rates. But more than 60 metropolitan areas have a higher crime rate. Over a dozen metropolitan areas lead Washington in the rate of violent crimes, such as assault and murder.ranks as a leading communication center. Many of the worlds major news-papers, magazines, and radio and television networks have permanent correspondents in the city. These provide their readers, listeners, and viewers with firsthand news of the activities of the government.government makes Washington one of the nations chief publishing centers. Its departments and agencies produce pamphlets and books on thousands of subjects. The subjects range from census information to how to solve farm problems and where to go for medical help.has two general daily newspapers, the Washington Post and the Washington Times. USA Today, a national daily paper, is published in the Washington area. Fourteen television stations and more than 40 radio stations serve the Washington area.businessgovernments attractions make Washington one of the worlds leading centers of tourism. Every year, millions of tourists visit the city to see government in action and to enjoy its many interesting and historic sights. The money the tourists spend help support - and provides jobs in - many hotels, motels, restaurants, and other businesses.other economically important businesses and private organizations are located in Washington chiefly because the government is there. They include law and accounting firms, public affairs research organizations, and communications companies. They also include numerous trade associations and labour unions that have their headquarters in the city so they can try to influence government policies in the best interests of their members. The people who work to influence the government are called lobbyists. Finance, insurance, property, and wholesale and retail trade also provide many jobs in Washington.is far less important in Washington than it is in most large cties. Only a small portion of the areas labour force works in manufacturing industries. Printing and publishing films employ many of these workers. [13, p. 58].


1.2 The history of Washington

first people known to have lived in the Washington area were Piscataway Indians. Whites moved into the area during the late 1600s and established farms and plantations. In 1749, settlers founded Alexandria, the areas first town, in what was then the colony of Virginia.different cities served as the national capital during the early years of the United States. In 1783, Congress decided that the country should have a permanent center of government. But the states could not agree on a location for it. People assumed that the new capital would become an important commercial and industrial city. As a result, each state wanted it to be located within its borders. Also, both Northerners and Southerners believed the capital should be in their part of the country.1790, Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton worked out a solution. He proposed that the capital be built on land that belonged to the federal government, rather than to a state. He and others persuaded Northern political leaders to agree to locate the capital in the South. In return, Southern leaders supported certain government policies favoured by the North.the disagreements were settled, Congress decided to locate the capital along the Potomac River. It asked President George Washington, who had been raised in the Potomac area, to choose the exact site.presidents office, made in 1791, included not only the land now occupied by Washington, but also about 78 square kilometres of land west of the Potomac. The citys present territory had belonged to Maryland, and the land southwest of the river was part of Virginia. The two states turned over the territory to the federal government. [14, p. 7].Washington hired Pierre Charles LEnfant, a French engineer, to create a plan for the physical layout of the city. LEnfants plan dealt only with the area between the Anacostia River and Georgetown. But it established the pattern for the entire city. It made the Capitol the center of Washington.federal government moved to Washington from its temporary capital in Philadelphia in 1800. At that time, the entire Washington area had only about 8,000 people. In 1814, during the War of 1812, British soldiers captured Washington. They burned the Capitol, the White House, and other government buildings. Reconstruction of the buildings was completed in 1819.predictions that Washington would become an important commercial and industrial center did not come true. The city could not compete economically with such long-established cities as Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Charleston. Lacking economic growth, Washington therefore remained a small city.s main periods of growth have been times of crisis, such as wars and depressions. During such times, the role of the federal government has been greatly expanded to help to meet crises. Large numbers of people moved to the city to handle the new jobs that resulted.Civil War (1861 - 1865) was the first crisis that caused Washington to grow. During the war, the citys population soared from about 60,000 to 120,000. The Union stationed thousands of troops in Washington to protect the city from Confederate attacks. Large numbers of people flocked to the city to help direct the Unions war effort and to establish business. In addition, thousands of slaves who had been freed during the war moved to the city. The enormous population growth led to severe housing shortage in Washington. In addition, the citys streets, sewer and water systems, and other public facilities were not able to cope with increased population. [13, p. 60].grew gradually for many years after the Civil War. But in 1917, when the United States entered World War I, another period of enormous growth began. Again, the government needed new workers to help to direct a war effort, and business and services were needed to support them.the Great Depression of the 1930s, jobs became scare in all parts of the United States except Washington. The federal government became deeply involved in projects designed to end the depression, and thousands of new government jobs became available in the capital.factors have caused the federal government to grow with few interruptions since the depression. They include countrys participation in World War II from 1941 to 1945, its leadership of the Western world after the war, and the federal governments increased responsibilities in the field of social welfare. The governments growth has brought about steady growth of the Washington area. [13, p. 60].


Chapter II. Excursion on Washington


.1 The White House

White House is the official residence of the president of the United States. The president lives and works in the world-famous mansion in Washington D.C. The White House contains the living quarters for the chief executives family and the officers in which the president and staff members conduct official business of the United States. Some most important decisions have been made there.132-room White House stands in the middle of a beautifully landscaped 7-hectare plot at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue. The building was popularly known as the White House in the 1800s when its white limestone was a noticeable contrast to the surrounding red brick houses. However, its official name was first the Presidents House and then the Executive Mansion until 1901. That year, President Theodore Roosevelt authorized White House as the official title.White House is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the United States. Every Year, more than one and a half million visitors go through the parts of the mansion that are open to the public. Members of the public may visit certain rooms in the White House on most weekday mornings.the White House

The main Building is 53 meters long and 26 meters high. A wide curved porch with lonic columns two storeys high stands on the mansions south side. A square porch on the north side is the main entrance. Two long, low galleries extend from the buildings east and west sides. The terraced roof covering them forms a promenade on the first floor. Facilities for the White House press corps are under the west terrace. A theatre is under the east terrace.east and west wings stand at the end of the terraces. The west (executive) wing contains the offices of the president and the presidential staff, and the Cabinet room. The east wing includes the offices of the presidents military aides.south lawn, often called the Presidents Park, contains many trees and shrubs planted by former occupants of the White House. For example, the south porch is shaded by magnificent magnolia trees planted by President Andrew Jackson. the White House

Public rooms. Tourists enter the White House through the east wing of the building. Most visitors are shown only five rooms on the first floor of the mansion, but these rooms represent the elegance and beauty of the entire interior.State Dining Room at the west end of the main building can accommodate as many as 140 dinner guests at one time. It was remodeled in 1902.Red Room is furnished in the style of the period from 1810 to 1830. The walls are hung with red silk.Blue Room is the main reception room for guests of the president. Its furnishings represent the period from 1817 to 1825. President James Monroe, who occupied the White House during these years, ordered much of the furniture now in this oval room.Green Room has been restored in the style of the years between 1800 and 1814. Its walls are covered with a light green silk moire. Its furniture is the style of Duncan Phyfe, a noted American furniture maker of the late 1700s and early 1800s.East Room is the largest room in the White House, 24 meters long and 11.2 meters wide. Guests are entertained in the East Room after formal dinners. It is at the end of the first floor. The East Room was remodeled in 1902.rooms. The president, the presidents family, their guests, and the presidents staff use many other rooms in the White House every day. The ground floor contains the Diplomatic Reception Room, used as the entrance for formal functions; the kitchen; the library; and offices of the White House doctor and curator.second floor contains the living quarters of the president and the presidents family. The Lincoln Bedroom, the Treaty Room, and the Queens Room are also at that floor. third floor contains guest rooms and staff quarters. The White House also has a private bowling alley, swimming pool, and cinema. [4, p. 26].

The history of the White Houseoriginal building was begun in 1792. It was designed by James Hoban, an Irish-born architect. Hobans design was selected in a competition sponsored by the federal government. It showed a simple Georgian mansion in the classical Palladian style of Europe in the 1700s. He modeled the design after Leinster House, the meeting place of the Irish Parliament, in Dublin, Ireland.and Mrs. John Adams became the first occupants of the White House in 1800. But it had not yet been completed, and they suffered many inconveniences. Mrs. Adams used the East Room to dry the family laundry. The White House became more comfortable and beautiful during the administration of Thomas Jefferson. With the aid of architect Benjamin H. Latrobe, Jefferson carried out many of the original White House plans, and added terraces at the east and west ends.new building. British forces burned the mansion on Aug. 24, 1814, during the War of 1812. President James Madison and his wife, Dolley, were forced to flee. The White House was rebuilt and President and Mrs. James Monroe moved into it in 1817. The north and south porches were added in the 1820s.Theodore Roosevelt had the building repaired in 1902. He rebuilt the east terrace and added the executive wing adjacent to the west terrace.Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged the west wing. An indoor swimming pool was added there. The east wing was also expanded.and redecoratingWhite House underwent extensive repairs from 1948 to 1952, during the presidency of Harry S. Truman. Workers used concrete and steel to strengthen the dangerously weakened structure of the Executive Mansion. The third floor was converted into a full third storey, and a second-storey balcony was added to the south porch for the presidents private use. The basement of the building was expanded, and the total number of rooms was increased from 125 to 132.the historic rooms familiar to the American public remained basically unchanged until the administration of John F. Kennedy. In 1961, Mrs. Kennedy appointed a Fine Arts Committee to restore the White House interior to its orginal appearance. The White House Historical Association was chartered in 1961 to publish guide books on the mansion and to acquire historical furnishings for the White House. A library committee was formed to stock the White House library with books representing American thought throughout the countrys history.major changes in the buildings historic rooms occurred during the administration of Richard Nixon. Beginning in 1970, Mrs. Nixon continued Mrs. Kennedys efforts to restore the White House interior in an early 1800s theme. [6, p. 18].


2.2 Pentagon Building


The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense <#"justify">The history of the PentagonHistory began in 1941 when Brigadier General Brehon Sommervell decided the War Department needed a temporary solution to its critical shortage of office space.appropriated the funds necessary to construct the War Departments new home (approximately $83 million) on August 14, 1941. The groundbreaking ceremony took place on September 11, 1941.

Architectural and structural design work for the Pentagon proceeded simultaneously with construction, with initial drawings provided in early October 1941, and most of the design work completed by June 1, 1942. At times the construction work got ahead of the design, with different materials used than specified in the plans. Pressure to speed up design and construction intensified after the attack on Pearl Harbor <#"justify">2.3 The Supreme Court Building


The Supreme Court Building is the seat of the Supreme Court of the United States <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Court_of_the_United_States> (the highest curt in the US). Built in 1935, it is situated at 1 First Street, NE <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northeast,_Washington,_D.C.> (across the street from the Capitol) and was designed by architect Cass Gilbert <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cass_Gilbert> (as Gilbert's last major project; he died before it was completed). It rises four stories (28 m) above ground. The cornerstone was laid on October 13, 1932, and construction completed in 1935 at a cost of just under $10 million budget authorized by Congress. The outside of the Supreme Court building is made from Vermont marble. modeled the US Supreme Court Building on Greece's Parthenon <#"justify">At the laying of the cornerstone for the building on October 13, 1932, Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes stated, "The Republic endures and this is the symbol of its faith." The building was designed on a scale in keeping with the importance and dignity of the Court and the Judiciary as a coequal, independent branch of the Federal government and as a symbol of "the national ideal of justice in the highest sphere of activity."


2.4 The Library of Congress


The Library of Congress is the research library <#"justify">2.5 The United States Capitol


The United States Capitol is the meeting place of the United States Congress <#"justify">The history of the United States Capitol

Construction of the Capitol started in 1793, two years after an area ceded by Maryland was selected as the District of Columbia, site of the new capital. The original design was created by Dr. William Thornton, a Scottish physician. His design called for a domed building flanked by a southern and northern wing. The construction of the sandstone building was supervised by James Hoban, the architect of the White House <#"justify">CONCLUSION

the beginning of the twentieth century the USA became the worlds leading country. Thousands of tourists visit Washington every day. People from all parts of the US come to see their capital, and also people all over the world. Washington greets tourists every year at such places of interest as the United States Capitol, the Supreme Court Building, the White House, the Library of Congress and others. The pink and white blossoms of the Japanese cherry near the Washington Monument create a magnificent delicate picture, and you are to visit Washington just to see it, and then all beauties of other cities will seem to you gloomy.

Observing the topic of the paper Washington D.C. The capital of the U.S.A. weve achieved our aim - observed characteristic features of Washington D.C., its history and places of interest.as a result of the work its necessary to emphasize the following conclusions:

.Most of Washingtons government buildings are great tourist attractions;

.The United States Capitol is the place where the members of Congress meet to discuss and vote on proposed legislation;

.In the Supreme Court Building, the nine justices decide on the constitutionality of laws, government practices, and decisions of lower courts;

.The White House has served as the home and the office of every United States president except George Washington;

5.The Library of Congress is the research library <#"justify">Of course this large space of the land with long and also complicated historical way of life has much more peculiarities which help Washington D.C attract the attention of the foreigners.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


1.Bordewich, Fergus M. Washington: the making of the American capital. - New York: HarperCollins, 2008. - 76-80 pp..

.Christopher Tomlins. The United States Supreme Court: The Pursuit of Justice (1st ed.). - Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2005.

. Crew, Harvey W.; William Bensing, John Wooldridge. Centennial History of the City of Washington, DC. - Dayton, Ohio: United Brethren Publishing House, 1892. - 124 p.

.Frank Freidel, William Pencak. The White House. The first two hundred years. - Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994.

. Frary, Ihna Thayer. They built the Capitol. - Washington: Ayer Publishing, 1969.

.Garett Wendell. Our Changing White House. - Washington: Northeastern University Press, 1995

. Hazelton, George Cochrane. The National Capitol. - New York: J.F.Taylor&Co., 1907.

.James Carroll. House of war: the Pentagon and the disastrous rise of American power. - Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2006. - 4 p.

.Jim Owens. Replacing the stone and rebuilding the Pentagon. - Washington: Mining Engineering, 2005. - 21 p.

. Samuel Collins. Library of Walls: The Library of Congress and the Contradictions of Information Society. - Washington: Information Agency, 2009.

.Steve Vogel. New Pentagon is a Paragon. - Washington: Washington Post, 2011. - 1 p.

.Steve Vogel. The pentagon: a History, 2003.

.The World Book Encyclopedia (v. 21), 1994 - 53-63 pp.

. Waldo Lee. A sketch of the Natural History of the District Of Columbia. - Washington: H.L.&J.B.McQueen, 1918. - 7 p.

.William Allen. History of the United States Capitol - A Chronicle of Design, Construction, and Politics. - Washington: Government Printing Office, 2001.


The characteristic features of Washington CONTENTS washington america capital INTRODUCTIONI

Больше работ по теме:

Предмет: География, экономическая география

Тип работы: Контрольная работа

Новости образования

КОНТАКТНЫЙ EMAIL: MAIL@SKACHAT-REFERATY.RU

Скачать реферат © 2018 | Пользовательское соглашение

Скачать      Реферат

ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНАЯ ПОМОЩЬ СТУДЕНТАМ