National varieties of English

 

Introduction


The youth is not only our hope and future, but it is a decisive force of our today and tomorrow.Abduganievich KarimovRepublic pays the great attention to the education of the students of Universities ,colleges, schools.attention is paid in the republic to the improvement of educational system and training of qualified specialists. On the basis of the president's decree dated February 28, 1992, twenty-four new institutions of higher learning and their branches to train specialists for principle branches of the national economy were established. Today there are 59 institutions of higher learning function in the republic, including 16 universities, 39 teacher training institutes, medical, technical, economic, agricultural, and other institutes. About 300 thousand students master 276 specialties there. The oldest higher Institutions in Uzbekistan are the National University named after Ulugbek (in past: first - Middle Asian, than Tashkent State University), the Technical Institute ( Polytecnical Institute). Since 1991 the number of higher educational institutions has increased by 30 %. New higher educational institutions have appeared: the University of World Economy and Diplomacy, Academy of State and Public Structuring, Academy of Armed Forces, Academy of Ministry of Internal Affairs.English language is the national language of GB, USA, Australia, New Zealand .The English language is also one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization.We are learning such kind language which serves to connect people all over the world, this language is the language of the official documents of international organizations.It is the language of world famous poets,writers , beginners of the English literature.language changes ,according to the rule of the modern world. You can find different varieties of pronunciation of the English language in different parts of our planet .the pronunciation of every national variety of English has its own specific pecularities that serves to distinguish it from other varieties of English.

1. The development of American english pronunciation

development of American English on the American continent has a comparatively short history. The conditions under which it developed were peculiar and quite unlike those under which the English language developed in Great Britain.is generally assumed that American English, in its spoken form, is essentially Southern English Standard of the 17th and 18th centuries as modified locally in the course of the last century or two. The linguistic evidence for a historical connection between American speech of the North and West and that of Northern England on the one hand, and between the speech of Eastern New England and the pronunciation of the South of England on the other hand, is well supported by the history of American colonization, of the Westward movement, and of later immigration.details are complex and obscure, it is known that early settlers of New England and most of the central Atlantic coast were largely populated by people of the Southern and eastern part of England. Those who settled Pennsylvania and Southern New Jersey came from the North of England. During the first half of the 18th century a large group of Germans came to America and settled throughout Pennsylvania .A group of Welsh immigrants also settled in an area just west of Philadelphia. These settlements were supplemented by the arrival of the Scotch and Scottish-Irish whose speech was similar to that of the North of England., differences in American speech represented differences in British speech from the outset. Later settlers also reflected later usage in the British Isles.the centuries in which the migrations were moving to the west of the country, the original settlements maintained a contact with Britain which the western settlers lost. Cities of the East coast long maintained their contact with London, and the Southern gentry continued to go to England for their education. Ships which arrived in Boston and other eastern cities brought new fashions in speech from across the Atlantic. These new fashions in speech rarely reached the west.foundations of most of diversities in American pronunciation were thus laid during the colonial period. Some of the present differences in American pronunciation are attributed to that period as well.English pronunciation (AE) of today is by no means homogeneous. Variations in AE are treated by many linguists.American linguists specify the fact that the diversities in pronunciation between the various regional standards in the USA are not so marked as in Great Britain, and they tend to become levelled out.three major types of American English standard pronunciation are not equal in importance. It may be said with certainty that the pronunciation of the southern States of the United States, example, is not the pronunciation standard of American English. The Southern American pronunciation is peculiar to that part of the country only and has not spread north.speaking, there may be a question as to the priority of General American over Eastern American English. But it is an established fact that most of the typical American peculiarities of pronunciation are characteristic of both General American and Eastern American pronunciation.is the form of speech used by radio and television. It is mostly used in scientific and business discourse. It not only the most wide spread type in the USA , but like RP in Great Britain , the least regional in character and the regionally neutral variety.


2. Phonology


Compared to English as spoken in England <#"justify">On the other hand, North American English has undergone some sound changes not found in other varieties of English speech:

·The merger of /?/ and /?/ <#"justify">Some mergers found in most varieties of both American and British English include:

·The merger <#"justify">3. Eastern American english


C.G.Van Riper and D.E. Smith wrote in 1962:It is difficult to generalize about Eastern American English ,since within the region where it is spoken there are many differing pronunciations.Eastern American pronunciation is typified as an r-less, or non-rhotic, type of American English pronunciation. Consequently ,it is characterized by the loss of [?] in the final and preconsonantal positions,as in car [ka:] and park [pa:k] . EA speakers use [з:] and [?] instead of the GA [?] and [?] in such words as bird,sister. One of the most striking features of EA, or more precisely, of Eastern New England is, perhaps, the use of the broad [a] ,in far , park,father... In contrast to GA Eastern American speakers use the RP [?] in so-called short-o words, as in hot, crop, not, dog, in which places GA speakers use [?] .In contrast to RP [?] is also used in such words as caught , fought , law, horse. The word cot and caught come to the identical -[k?t].

The frequent vowel in doll and solve is [?] , though [?] and [?] can also occur.

In forest, orange, horrid ,tomorrow [?] predominates. However , [?] varies with [?] , especially before the velar consonants [?] and [?] as in fog, long.

[?] is normal in burry ,worry ,courage.

The diphtongs [a?] , [??],[a?] are relatively stable, though some traces of [a?] and [æ?] remain in rural areas.

Absorb, absurd, and desolate may have either [s] or [z] , greasy and the verb greasy have [s].


4. Southern American english

the speech of the South there are subareas and gradations of social status, as reflected in speech ,to be found nowhere else in the country .Generally speaking ,SA has unique differences in the manner of articulation .Southerners lengthen certain vowels,they make the single vowels (monophthongs) into diphthongs and triphthongs .The articulation is more lax and unprecise and it is this rather than the rate ,or speed , of speech which characterizes the southern drawl. Few generalizations can be made about Southern pronunciation as there is great variation between the regions of the South , between older and younger people, and between people of different ethnic backgrounds.following features are characteristic of older SAE:

·Lack of yod-dropping <#"justify">Mean formant values for the ANAE subjects from the Southern U.S. (excluding Florida and Charleston, SC). The red symbol marks the position of monophthongized /a?/ before voiced consonants. The distinction between /?/ and /?/ is preserved mainly because /?/ has an upglide. /e?/ is backer and lower than /?/.following features are also associated with SAE:

·The diphthong <#"justify">Normally [з] and [?] replace the GA [?] and [?] , as in bird [bзd] and sister [s?st?].

Consequently , southerners use the diphthongs [??] , [??], [??], though [?] may occasionally drop out . Therefore , fierce may be [f??s] or [f?:s] , poor may be [p??] or [po?] or [po].

[?:] , [?] and [?], as in cart ,coat and caught , are usually clearly differentiated. On the other hand , caught some times diphthongizes as [k??t] , approaching ambiguity with coat [ko?t]. The shift to [??] characterizes the whole class of words illustrated by caught , walk, cost, log and law .The diphthongal extreme is illustrated by laundry which may have [?], [?], [?], [??],[??] or [??]. Short-o words may have [?] and [?] :log and mock usually have [?]; log may also have variants with [?], [??] and [o?]; donkey may have [?],or [?], or [??], or [??].

[æ] is normally used in dance and ask,though a diphthongal variant ?] is frequent ,as in ?sk] for ask.


5. American English intonation

the opinion of many American linguists the most important differences between British and American pronunciation involve innovation rather than pronunciation proper.intonation is often characterized as having wider melodic curves" and more rapid changes than AE intonation. As a result of such intonation patterns, the speech of an Englishman sounds abrupt, explosive, manneristic to American ears. At the same time American speech often sounds unemotional, rather dry, sometimes hesitating,monotonous,colorless and indecisive to an Englishmen All these observations are very impressionistic.However,to do justice to American scholars , we should say that some of these observations are not groundless.the past decade a number of electro-acoustic analyses in this country and abroad have thrown some light on the differences between AE and BE intonation systems.most research and specialist literature is largely devoted to the study of intonational differences of General American and RP, the following analysis will mainly concern itself with these two varieties of English.GA intonation has a general resemblance to that of RP. These are ,however ,quite a few noteworthy points of difference ,both structural and functional.most characteristic RP pre-terminal pitch contour in emotionally neutral speech is the so called gradually descending stepping head, in which the stressed syllable syllables are made prominent by means of a step down in pitch .counterpart GA pre-terminal contours that have a wide occurrence in emotionally neutral ,or unemphatic speech are:

)a level pre-terminal contours

)a wavy-level pre-terminal contour.level pre-terminal contour starts at a medium pitch and remains fairly even until the final rise or fall.The eveness of the tone is often not affected by any stressed syllables that may occur.mid-wavy-level contour is,actually,a variant of the mid-level contour:every stressed syllable has a wavy like motion , or a slightly rising-falling pitch .The unstressed syllables that precede or follow the stressed one are intoned on a lower pitch level .The waves are realized on the same medium pitch level. Sructural differences in the pre-terminal part concern the general movement the pitch contour :GA mid-level or mid-wavy-level vs RP descending-stepping contour and also the position of unstressed syllables intervening the stressed ones:in GA the unstressed syllables in the level and mid-wavy-level contour show a greater tendency to fall to a lower pitch ; in RP in down-stepping sequence of stressed syllsbles the intervening unstressed syllables the intervening unstressed syllables may from either a gradual descent or may be said on the same pitch as the previous stressed syllable.

The development of the English language in Australia has its own history , which is comparatively short one : less than two centuries. The chief reasons for the development of Australian speech are linguistic and historica ,though, as the majority of Australian linguists state ,it is difficult to trace them very satisfactorily.

Linguistic evidence which would make it possible to follow the development of Australian speech almost does not exist. Historical knowledge of early Australian immigration is not very sufficient or precise , particularly in the matter :what parts of England the transported convicts and early free settlers came from .

Australian speech,as well as Australian pronunciation , has always been subject to debate . Australian diphthongs resembling the Cockney diphthongs have been heard in some type of Australian speech from early times. Some general remarks concerning the origins of Australian pronunciation are ventured by A.G. Mitchell and A.Delbridge ,Australian linguists, who have done a thorough investigation of Australian pronunciation . They maintain that Australian is in its origins a town speech ,since the overwhelming number of convicts and early settlers were from the towns , it was in its origins a working class speech, the language of people who were poor and for tye most part unskilled, it included ways of speech characteristic of many parts of England , Scotland , Wales and Ireland. The authors conclude that since all these forms were brought in Australia ,and this had ever happened in England ,Australian speech began as a levelling and generalization of a number of English local dialects. Moreover speech developed in Australian in a society in which there has been constant movement from place to place and social mobility from the beginning.These internal population movements , added to mobility in the social structure itself , have provided the conditions in which the national variety of English has developed in Australia . Australian English <#"justify">MONOPHTHONGS/?//?/bid, pit/i?//i?/bead, peat/?//e/bed, pet/æ//æ, æ?/pat, bad/a?//a?, ??/balm, father, pa/?//?/bod, pot, cot/??//o?/bawd, paw, caught/?//?/good, foot, put/u?//?/booed, food/?//a/bud, putt5.DIPHTHONGS/a?//?e/buy, high, ride, write/e?/?/bay, hey, fate/a?/?/bough, how, pout/o?//??/beau, hoe, poke/??//o?/boy, hoy/ju//j?/beauty, hue, pew, new

Australian English pronunciation is most similar to that of New Zealand English <#"justify">9. Maritimes


Maritimer <#"justify">10. Phonemic incidence

pronunciation of certain words has both American and British influence; some pronunciations are more distinctively Canadian.

·The name of the letter <#"justify">Conclusion

considering the history and development of the English language we may maintain that owing to interactions of linguistic and extralinguistic factors the present-day pronunciation of the English language comprises such national varieties as British English,American English, Australian English,Canadian English.English pronunciation is characterized by a greater variety of standard forms than British English.American is the least regional in character and the most widespread type of American standard pronunciation .Australia the situation is incomparable ,perhaps, to any other national varieties of English pronunciation.There are no regional standards or local dialects in Australia.the national context, Canadian English pronunciation is,so to speak, on the way to standartization .comparative analysis of the national varieties of English pronunciation shows that they have identical as well as divergent features at all levels of the phonetic system of English :the system of vowel and consonant phonemes ,the accentual structure of words and intonation.conclusion we may say that the problems of convergence and divergence in the phonetic system of national varieties of English pronunciation open up wide vistas for further investigations.study this subject because I think the importance is great .Speaking really the majority of people in the modern world study contemporary American English. At our university students mainly pay great attention to the ways of studing of British English .The American English still remains a new language .The world changes .The change takes place in the sphere of usage of American and British languages .Today we witness the domain of the American English in the world and thats why I think my work will an important role in the system of language learningin our University.



Bibliography


Kenyon, John S. (1950). "American pronunciation" (10th ed.). Ann Arbor: George Wahr. Schneider, Edgar (Ed.). (1996). "Focus on the USA". Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Schneider, Edgar W.; Kortmann, Bernd; Burridge, Kate; Mesthrie, Rajend; & Upton, Clive (Eds.). (2004). "A handbook of varieties of English: Phonology" (Vol. 1). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Thomas, Erik R. (2001). "An acoustic analysis of vowel variation in New World English". Publication of American Dialect Society (No. 85). Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Thompson, Charles K. (1958). "An introduction to the phonetics of American English" (2nd ed.). New York: The Ronald Press Co., S.J. (1945) The Australian language, Angus and Robertson, S.J. (revised edition 1966) The Australian language, Sun Books Bell, M. (1867) Visible speech, E.J. (1957) The phonetic writings of Robert Robinson, A.J.(1889) Early English pronunciation, P. (1967) Three areas of experimental phonetics, Oxford University Press.Mitchell, A.G. (1946) The pronunciation of English in Australia, Angus and Robertson.

Mitchell, A.G., & Delbridge, A. (revised edition, 1965) The pronunciation of English in Australia, Angus and Robertson., A.G., & Delbridge, A. (1965) The speech of Australian adolescents, Angus and Robertson. Allen H.B. Canadian-American Differences.-JCLA,V,Spring ,1952 Bloomfield M.W. Canadian English and its Relation to Eighteenth Century American speech.-JEGP,1948


Introduction The youth is not only our hope and future, but it is a decisive force of our today and tomorrow.Abduganievich KarimovRepublic pays the great

Больше работ по теме:

Предмет: Английский

Тип работы: Реферат

Новости образования

КОНТАКТНЫЙ EMAIL: MAIL@SKACHAT-REFERATY.RU

Скачать реферат © 2018 | Пользовательское соглашение

Скачать      Реферат

ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНАЯ ПОМОЩЬ СТУДЕНТАМ