International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States


International Combating The Crimes

Harming The Economic Development Of States

by Kevin W. Godley, Brian Wilson


After disintegration of the former Soviet Union, and the camp of socialism, the new order was established. And the basic element of this order is the multipolarity of the world, the availability of several centres of influence.

And one of elements reflecting today's condition is the instability caused by the various factors and here not the last role plays the criminal factor. The difficult economic, political and social situation, low standards of living, growth of poverty - all this is nutritious environment for the development of criminality.

The states as the institutes, in which responsibility is the organization of struggle against criminality, already have serious difficulties in combating the criminals crossing their ways. They are compelled to cooperate and to render one another legal assitance on criminal cases.

All defects of international cooperation in this are area immediately used by the offenders for fulfilment and concealment of traces of crimes of international character, the number of is growing rapidly today.

Since 80-th years the growth rates of criminality in the world, were increased on the average by 5 % annually. Only in the USA there are 35 billion crimes committed annually. It is possible to note, that in Russia for the period from1991 to 1995 13 million crimes were registered and in 1995. - 3million.

According to the opinions of the experts, in some countries the losses from fraud in financial sphere are equivalent to the sum making 10 % of the annual internal gross product of this country.

The illegal turn-over of drugs brings to criminals the profit, amount of which makes 500 billion US dollars per year. This sum is equal to a total sum a GNP of two thirds of the members - states of the UN.

The large incomes they have and from economic crimes, character and which methods are constantly improved.

The more and more complex and refined manipulations with the prices on international and national exchanges are marked; sale of securities by the persons and establishments, engaging confidential information; frauds with credit cards; illegal trade of the weapon and ammunition; transfer of the incomes from illegal activity in foreign banks and their washing up by various methods; crimes against the cultural property; an intellectual piracy connected to the illegal edition and use of products, inventions and opening; a counterfeiting.

In this connection it is considered quite tolerant, that today from 1 million USD only three hundred are false.

The international danger of listed and other crimes considerably grows. They destabilize the activity of the governments, undermine bases of civil company, restrain the rights and freedom of the person, entail pernicious consequences for economic and social development of the states and represent threat to safety of the state.

This crimes damage normal economic development of the states and usually complicated by presence of a foreign element, sometimes are the part of a crime which is made on territory of other state.

The legal basis of activity of the states in combating international crime is international criminal law, which is a branch of international public law.

If the norms of international criminal law are not transformed into the national legislation, then interrogators, inspectors, public prosecutors and judges during abidance by rules of the named constitutional norm have the right to refer to the decisions to specific norms of the international agreement.

The smuggling is committed only on the territory of two and more states and according to the international custom, recognized by the states, is an international offense. The punishment for a smuggling is established in the national administrative or criminal legislation.

Till now there was no multilateral agreement on the struggle against smuggling. In this respect it is possible to note only CTC CONVENTION about cooperation in combating infringements of the customs rules accepted in 1977 in Nayrobi (Kenya).

Generally the smuggling includes illegal moving of any values through the border of the various states. Its danger for the international law and order is that it undermines the relations of friendship and cooperation of the states, monopoly of the states or other order in the field of foreign trade, brings harm to the economic and cultural development of the states.

Unlike other crimes the smuggling is very dynamic ally and constantly being improved by criminals and its updates are unpredictable. Now the greatest danger to the international community is represented by a smuggling of weapons to hot points of our planet. Quite often smugglers serve to the representatives of the separate states which are supplied with the illicit weapons various extremist, ultra-right, ultra-left, ultra-nationalistic, and frank fascist groups, as well terrorists and simply criminals.

The Subject of smuggling is not only shooting, but also other kinds of the weapon, including the ammunition and explosive substances. According to the information of the UN, the representatives of some states also use services of smugglers of the weapon There is also black market of the weapon, of shooting weapon and buyers of which can use in case when foreign governments do not satisfy their needs. The sizes of this market cannot be determined, and therefore also it is impossible to evaluate its real significance.

In practice, the international-legal combating such smuggling is not conducted because the weapon is a legal object of foreign trade, and export of the weapon Legal tool of external policy of a state.

By virtue of the public danger, the smuggling is known for the national law of all states. In our country the struggle against it is conducted on the basis of the customs, administrative and criminal codes.

The legalization of the criminal incomes became widely circulated in the countries with market economy. The mechanism of these crimes is rather complex. As it is shown in the circuit, indicated in appendix, extracted by a criminal way money removed abroad and located in different countries on the accounts of business banks.

On these finances criminals create enterprises and banks, by an official way buy foreign currency, conclude external economic and other contracts. The accomplices of such crimes are the workers of banks hiding the actions under pretext of preservation of bank secret.

This crime is referred to the Strasbourg convention on washing up, revealing, withdrawal and confiscation of the incomes from criminal activity 1990 to the number of international crimes. The state-participants have undertaken the obligations to announce washing up of such money as a crime, to accept the laws in order to search, withdraw and confiscate the illegally received finances, to remove all restrictions from disclosure or unfair use by the workers of banks data about the holdings of the bank clients.

The states have undertaken obligations to fix legally the rights of access of the authorized officers of law-enforcement bodies to banking operations allowing duly investigation of these crimes.

Several states, having joined this Convention, already have introduced to their national legislation essential amendments.

For example, in Great Britain since 1994 acts the law, according to which the workers of all banks which have not informed law-enforcement bodies about unusual, suspicious moving of money resources, can be called to account in the criminal liability and to get up to 14 years of deprivation of freedom.

Earlier in the Netherlands started to act the law obliging the bank workers to inform law-enforcement bodies about receipt on the accounts of the bank customers of the sums of more than 25 thousand guldens. About the origin of such means the account holder is obliged to give an explanation. The similar norms are in USA, Italy and other countries.

The certain contribution to strengthening struggle against these crimes has been introduced in International conference on prevention of washing up of money, using the incomes from criminal activity and combating these illegal incomes, conducted by the UN in Hens - Mayer (Italy) in June, 1994, and World conference on the organized and transnational criminality at the governmental level, organized by UN in Naples (ITALY) in November 1994.

At the World conference conducted under auspices of the UN the Neapolitan political declaration and Global plan of actions against the organized transnational crime were adopted, and further authorized by the resolution of General Assembly of the United Nations.

In this Declaration of heads of the states and governments, ministers and the officials of law-enforcement bodies have accepted the decision to protect the countries from criminal incomes and from international criminal organizations by adopting effective legislative measures and operative means.

The Global plan of actions emphasized the necessity of rendering the technical assistance by the United Nations, including communication of experience and exchange training, developing the drafts of bills, special training of the officials of criminal justice, acquisition, analysis of the information about the indicated crimes and exchange by it.

The Conference accepted offer of the representatives from Italy about establishing on its territory new International training centre for the officers of the law-enforcement bodies and the system of criminal justice.

One of the problems of this Centre communication of experience of combating legalization of the criminal incomes and other economic crimes of international character.

Among other documents, it is necessary to mention Facultative protocol to the Standard Agreement about the mutual assistance in the field of criminal justice concerning the incomes of crimes, accepted by the resolution of the General Assembly of the UN in 1990.

Illegal operations with narcotic means and psychotropic substances are the most widespread among considered crimes. Attempts of the states alone to combat these crimes were almost unsuccessful. The epidemic of drug habit went worldwide.

In 1909 there was the first international organization to struggle against the drug abusing Shanghai commission. It coordinated cooperation of the states in the struggle against an illegal turn-over of drugs, which has become to be qualified as an international criminal offence.

Now only in the UN, there are several commissions who act in the field of combating these crimes:

- UN Commission on narcotic means, which determines the policy of international community in the field of the international control of drugs. In its structure 40 members appointed by Economic and Social Council (ECOSOS) of the UN;

- The department of the UN on narcotic means in Vienna. It acts for the abovementioned Commission as Secretariat and supports political will of governments by granting the information and services of the experts;

- International council of controlling the narcotic means (ICCNM), consists of 13 members - experts appointed by ECOSOS for supervision over action of system of the international agreements for controlling drugs and psychotropic substances. Annually it presents the report on world situation in the field of the control drugs and psychotropic substances;

- the United Nations Fund of Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAC), which is financed at the cost of voluntary contributions, helps countries in planning and realization of the specific programs of the drugs control and rehabilitation of drug addicts. In 1989 the Fund rendered the assistance in realization of 152 projects in 49 states;

- the United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP), according to which General Assembly of the UN annually hears the report of the General Secretary about realization of the World program of actions on combating against illegal production, offer, demand, turn-over and distribution of narcotic means and psychotropic substances. Such attention is not casual. The public danger of these crimes grows. The object of their encroachment is not only health of the people, but also external economic relations among the states, damage to pharmaceutical and other branches of national economy. They render negative influence on the relations with those countries, which condone offences in this area and default the international obligations, taken per.

Along with growth and distribution of drug addiction there had been developed the process of development, perfection and rapprochement of the international and national legislation on directions of agreements between the states and national measures of criminal, administrative and medical character.

The first international agreement became the Hague convention adopted 1912, which fixed the following basic rules:

- the production and distribution of crude opium should be supervised by legislation;

- its smoking should be eradicated;

- the production, sale and use of drugs should be limited by the law extremely in the medical purposes etc.

Subsequently 9 international agreements on struggle against considered crimes had been adopted. Among them it is necessary to mention the Convention on prohibition of illegal trade of narcotic means adopted in 1936.

With the purposes of unification of the numerous international norms of law, in 1961 the Uniform convention on the narcotic means which have replaced all earlier Conventions in this area except for the Convention 1936 was adopted .

The article 36 of Single Convention describes 18 punishable acts: cultivation, production, manufacturing, extraction, preparation, storage, offer with commercial objectives, distribution, purchase, sale, delivery on any terms, brokerage, dispatch, transshipment in transit, delivery, importation and exportation of drugs made in infringement of the Convention norms.

Besides, the Convention gives the interpretation of cultivation, importation, exportation and other acts. This list cannot be full, therefore the state in norms of the national legislation can recognize criminal, for example, consumption of drugs.

All of them are conditionally subdivided into illegal operations manufacturing-oriented of narcotic means, their sale and purchase and transportation.

The experts know about 500 kinds of narcotic means, which are made in mainly from plants which contain narcotic substances. (poppy, hemp, coca, cannabis and etc.). Narcotic properties have also psychotropic substances, which cause in the person relaxation, hallucination or depression.

They are artificially created medicines, rendering influence on mental functions of the person. They are even known as tranquilizers or antidepressants.

It establishes the measures regulating the control of production and distribution of psychotropic substances, gives their provisional list, sets the criminality and punishability of these acts at the discretion of states. In the Convention there is no list criminally punishable acts.

Both conventions order the states, that all serious and deliberate illegal operations with narcotic means and psychotropic substances be punished by the imprisonment or other punishment connected with deprivation of freedom (article 36 of Convention of 1961 and article 22 of Convention of 1971).

In violation of these norms Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Malaysia and other countries (about 12) established death penalty for the use and distribution of drugs.

The conventions provide a territorial principle of punishment of criminals, i.e. under the laws of the state, on which territory the crimes are accomplished.

On a place of detention of a criminal the jurisdiction is carried out only for the reason of inadmissibility of his extradition.

The UN Convention of maritime law also contains the norm about struggle against these crimes. Under the maritime law. According to an article 108 all states cooperate in suppression of illegal trade of drugs and psychotropic substances realized by ships in the high sea in violation of the international rules.

The Convention 1988 determines as criminal the following acts: production, manufacturing, extraction, distribution, sale, delivery on any terms, transportation, import or export, and also cultivation of poppy, cocaine sheets, cannabis with the purposes of illegal production of drugs.

The public instigation or prompting others to fulfillment such acts and introduction into criminal arrangement with the purposes of their fulfillment (article 3) is punished also.

Besides the deprivation of freedom states should apply the fines and confiscation. The opportunity of application to guilty of such measures, as treatment, reclaiming, restoration of work capability, social reintegration (item 4 of an article 30) is fixed.

Here are listed the following aggravating circumstances: the organized group, application of the weapon, violence, involving in criminal activity of the minors, and also previous conviction(s), especially for a similar offence.

Also there is typical instruction which determines that the states in necessary cases establish long terms of punishment for considered crimes. The Convention has a special article of extradition (article 6).

The mutual legal help in investigation and proceeding of criminal cases detailed is also described.

The Viennese UNs international Convention obliges the states-participants to harmonize the national legislative norms in conformity with the rules of this Convention. (article 3). It assumes to approach the norms of national and international legislation maximally in order to establish the uniform responsibility for dealing with an illegal turn-over of narcotic means and psychotropic substances.

Necessity of acceptance of the given measure on my sight has been caused by the following objective reasons. Firstly, in the majority of countries of the world there is no uniform complex and comprehensive legislation and criminal policy concerning drugs in national legal systems.

Secondly, the national criminal doctrine of the developed states relating to the drug addiction is focused less punishable, than in the developing countries.

Thirdly, the legislation of significant number of the states takes under the control only so-called natural drugs and it appears unable to control psychotropic substances. In the rare cases, when such control occurs, it is carried out not by means of criminal law, but by the norms of administrative law which frequently have blurred formulations, insufficient for strict and specific control.

Fourthly, in the legislation of the majority of countries there is no uniformity in a terminology in classifications of drugs, in definition of crimes and other offences, in establishment of punishment, and also in details of administrative and judicial procedures and etc.

This international Convention has played an important role not only in elimination of these defects of the national legislation in combating an illegal turn-over of narcotic substances, but also has introduced the worthy contribution to its systematization.

The UN Commission on narcotic substances on its plenary meeting 29.01.1990 adopted the decision on updating the List of the Uniform Convention on narcotic means 1961 by new kinds of narcotic means and the list of the UN Convention on psychotropic substances 1971 - psychotropic substances. These substances were also defined in the national legislation of a number of the states - members of the Convention 1988. The similar changes continued to occur.

Characteristically, that the person, voluntarily returned drugs, is released from the criminal liability for their purchase, storage, carriage and transfer the storage, carriage and transfer of consumed narcotic means. Is not pursued in criminal order and person who voluntarily has applied to medical establishment to get the medical assistance in connection with consumption of drugs in nonmedical purposes.

Counterfeiting is the most ancient international criminal offence. It has emerged simultaneously with replacement of natural commodity with money. From ancient times not only separate persons, but also states were engaged in counterfeiting, which by similar actions tried to undermine economy of other states to weaken them and to achieve victory in war.

Such actions made Napoleon Bonapart towards Russia during the preparation of his 1812 campaign. Also widely known the facts of manufacturing of Great Britains pounds by fascist Germany the Second world war. The counterfeit money and securities are used and as the means of undermine of developing states economy. For example, in 1967 in Paris was found out the underground factory which printed the notes of the Republic of Zaire. And the French police confiscated money to the sum equal to 15 million francs.

According to the information of Interpol, only for period from 1946 to 1972 this organization managed with the help of police of other countries to find out and to classify about 6 million counterfeit money and securities in 89 countries of the world.

However experts consider, that even these on the scales do not correspond to reality. Cases of counterfeiting are much more greater, and not all of them get in a field of vision of police and revealed.

These crimes are made by well organized groups supported sometimes by the representatives of corrupt authorities. In 1968, for example, was exposed the group of international criminals including more than hundred persons.

They forged American dollars and travelers cheques with the signature of 26 most known banks from various countries of the world. The centre of organization was in Latin America, and one of branches In Italy.

The false checks and dollars were distributed through tourists on all continents of globe. Soon in vicinities of Bologna in Italy was found out the printing house, which polygraphic equipment was evaluated in 50 million Italian liras. The accomplishes of this criminal syndicate were arrested and are condemned in many countries of the world.

According to the information of Interpol most frequently forged note is - (about 80 %) American dollars because of their universal use. 100 dollar notes are most frequently forged. As an answer-back measure, for maintenance of stronger protection from a fake, American authorities in 1996 manufactured new 100 dollar note with additional levels of protection.

Currency is the basis of the state economic system and it is important that the public remains confident with its money. Therefore it is essential to combat this type of criminality on a daily basis.

The necessity of international cooperation to struggle against these crimes has resulted in the conclusion the Geneva Convention on combating counterfeit money.

The state-participants have undertaken the obligations not to make distinctions between counterfeit own or foreign money and securities and with identical severity punish criminals. It was announced as an extraditional international criminal offence.

Therefore all countries participants of the convention should assist the states in search and returning of the absconded manufacturer, trader of counterfeit money or their accomplices. From 1931 to 1995 within the framework of requests of an article 12 of Geneva convention eight international conferences on coordination of activity of the states, largest banks and emission institutions in combating these crimes had been conducted.

To token moneys the Convention carries only circulating paper money and metal coins.

The state-participants have agreed strictly to punish:

1) All illegal actions on manufacturing or change of token moneys, whichever there was a method used for achievement of this result;

2) swindling;

3) actions addressed to sale, import in the country or reception, or raising for itself of counterfeit token money, in condition that their false character was known;

4) attempts on these offences and actions on deliberate partnership;

5) illegal actions on manufacturing, reception or purchase for itself of instruments or other subjects intended on the nature for manufacturing of false token moneys or for change of token moneys (an article 3). The citizens of the country and person living on its territory, who are guilty in counterfeiting of internal and foreign token moneys should be engaged to the criminal liability.

According to an article 12 of the Convention inquests on such businesses are conducted within the framework of national criminal legal proceedings by Central Office, which works in close cooperation with banking establishments, police and similar bodies of other countries.

It allows to centralize in scale of the state all items of information able to facilitate search, suppression and preventive maintenance of these crimes. Now all questions of international cooperation in considered sphere of the international relations are assigned to the Interpol.

At the same time lot of norms of the Convention are obsolete, and its text requires essential updating.

First of all it concerns to expansion of concept of token moneys. Fakes of the bills, letters of credit, cheques marks of a postage and other securities are widespread today. However in the Convention such offences are not considered as criminal. That mostly can be told about a counterfeit of token moneys which are not taking place in circulation, and about exportation of fake money abroad. These disadvantages of the Convention are compelled to fill national norms of the criminal legislation, and also bilateral agreements.

The cooperation of the states in the field of struggle against crime is conducted in several directions:

- Recognition of danger for community of the states certain criminal offences and necessity of application of joint measures for their suppression. Those can be except crimes considered in the present work terrorism, hijacking, illegal trade of people, etc. The public danger of these crimes is determined in the international agreements.

- Rendering assistance in searching of the offenders, hiding on the territory of another state. There are two possible ways of realization - through diplomatic missions and by direct communication between law-enforcement agencies. It is necessary to note the expansion of this direction of cooperation: if before the state addressed to specific country with the request for search or extradition of a criminal, now this search is conducted in world scale, and the search is conducted not only on absconded criminal, but also on stolen property. With the purpose of simplification of search the informational exchange is carried out sometimes.

- Help in reception of necessary materials on criminal case(s). In case of fulfillment of a crime or commitment in several countries or commitment of its part in other state and etc. the witnesses and material proofs can be found in the other state. To receive these materials it is necessary to conduct consecutive actions abroad, that is carried out by sending of the appropriate separate assignment (commissions rogatoires). It can be the assignment to interrogate the witness, to make survey of a place of incident and etc. The agreement defines, what kind of the assignment can be given to the appropriate agency of other state. An agency, which should execute this assignment is guided by the national norms, for want of it the answers to all questions, delivered in the assignment.

- Rendering the practical help to the separate states in solving the problems of criminality, studying these problems. This kind of the help is expressed in direction of the experts to countries called to render the specific help to define main directions of struggle against criminality, to give the recommendations for organization correctional of system etc.).

- Study of problems of criminality and struggle against it. On order to do it the international congresses, conferences, international organizations, research institutes are organized.

- Informational exchange. The states frequently agree to grant each other information necessary for successful realization of a consequence and capturing of a criminal, and also other information of criminal character. Also they carry out exchange of information about the sentences concerning the citizens of one country. As a rule such exchange of the information occurs annually.

The international cooperation of the states is conducted in the following forms:

- The conclusion of the international agreements. These are the agreements on rendering of the legal help, extradition of criminals, recognition criminality of certain offences and etc.

- Use of international organizations. The states with the purposes of cooperation create universal organizations (UN), regional (ASL, OAU), specialized establishments of the UN (ILO, WHO), create special organizations (Interpol); Besides in this process also equally participate interstate and non-governmental agencies (International Association of criminal Law, International association of the lawyers - democrats).

Legal bases of cooperation of the states are universal conventions, multilateral agreements or regional conventions, bilateral agreements, activity of international organizations on combating crime.

The section about the legal help on criminal cases consists of three parts:

- Extradition (Convention1988 articles 56-71)

- Realization of criminal prosecution (article 72-77)

- Special rules about the legal help on criminal cases (article 78-80)

The part of extradition defines the procedure of extradition, rights and responsibility of competent agencies of the agreeing states is certain(determined). So, for example, agreeing parties obliged according to conditions stipulated by the present Convention, to demand extradition of persons who reside on the territory of other agreeing party, to engage them to the criminal liability or for serving of a sentence (article 56).

Conditions of the responsibility of extradition are:

1. For engagement to the criminal liability it is necessary, that in the criminal legislation of the requesting and required party is determined, that offence as punishable and for which commitment the deprivation of freedom not less than one year or heavier punishment is provided;

2. For execution of a sentence it is necessary, that in the criminal legislation of the requesting and required party is determined, that offence as punishable and for which commitment the deprivation of freedom not less than six months or heavier punishment is provided.

The extradition is not made, if:

a) the person, which extradition is required, is the citizen of the required agreeing party; In this case, criminal case will be sent to competent agencies of the required agreeing party for realization of the further criminal prosecution.

b) at the moment of receiving of a request the criminal prosecution according to the legislation of the required agreeing party cannot be processed or the sentence cannot be executed because of the expiration of terms of prescription or on other legal basis;

c) concerning the person, which extradition is required, on territory of the required agreeing party for that crime the sentence had been passed or decree on dismissal entered into legal force;

d) the crime according to the legislation of the requesting or required agreeing party is pursued by way of the private charge (by application of aggrieved). (article 57 item1)

In extradition can be denied, if the crime, in connection with which the extradition is required, was accomplished on territory of the required agreeing party. (article 57 item 2)

Also criminal case can be returned when it does not correspond to the requirements of the given Convention.

After passing the decision the required agreeing party should notify the requesting agreeing party about the sentence and to send a copy of the sentence to the requesting agreeing party. (article 74)

Besides, the part 3 of the unit about the legal help on criminal cases contain definitions about transfer of subjects important in criminal case (material proofs, instrument of a crime etc.) (article 78), and also transfer to other agreeing parties of the judicial information, information on the sentences entered in legal force passed by courts of one agreeing party concerning the citizens of other agreeing party, simultaneously remitting available condemned fingerprints. And each of the agreeing parties gives to other agreeing parties at their request information of a previous conviction of the persons condemned earlier by courts, if these persons are involved in the criminal liability on territory of the requesting Contract (item 79).

International Crime. The development of increasingly sophisticated facilities for rapid travel has made it far easier for criminals to move around the world. At the same time, the complex structures of modern societies and the constant growth of international exchanges provide more and more opportunities for international criminal activity, which has now reached alarming proportions.

But the term 'international crime', although in common use, does not necessarily refer to a specific category of offence defined in law.

Some offences are covered by international conventions, for instance currency counterfeiting (1929 Geneva Convention on struggle wit counterfeit token moneys), traffic in human beings and the exploitation of prostitution (1949 Convention on struggle against trade of people and exploitation of prostitution), and drug trafficking (1988 UNs Uniform Convention on struggle against illegal turn-over of narcotic means and psychotropic substances).

Other offences, however, can be classified as 'international' because of the behaviour of the offenders. For instance, preparations for committing an offence may be made in one country while the actual offence is committed in one or more other countries. To take another example, similar offences may be committed one after the other in several different countries. Finally, an offender may escape across a border after committing his offence, he may transfer his illicit gains abroad, or he may conceal objects or documents used to commit the offence in another country.

Tracing and arresting such offenders may prove extremely difficult; problems can arise in connection with exchanging information, identification, international investigations and subsequent extradition. Because of these problems, police departments in different countries must work together if they are to combat international crime successfully.

The principles and procedures governing international police cooperation have grown up gradually over the years to form the present INTERPOL system. It may be worth recalling the most significant dates.

1914 During the First International Criminal Police Congress, held in Monaco from 14-18 April, legal experts and police officers from 14 different countries and territories studied the possibility of establishing an international criminal records office and harmonizing extradition procedures

The outbreak of the First World War prevented any further progress

1923 The Second International Criminal Police Congress met in Vienna, Austria, and set up the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) with its own Statutes, and official Headquarters in Vienna. The ICPC operated satisfactorily until the outbreak of the Second World War, but was essentially a European organization

1946 After the Second World War, a conference was held in Brussels to revive the ICPC and the whole concept of international police co-operation

New Statutes were adopted and the Commission's Headquarters moved to Paris

'INTERPOL' was chosen as the telegraphic address of the Headquarters

1956 The ICPC became the International Criminal Police Organisation INTERPOL, abbreviated to ICPO-INTERPOL

1966 The INTERPOL General Secretariat moved to Saint Cloud, outside Paris

1973 The Organisation celebrated its 50th anniversary in its birthplace, Vienna

1984 The new Headquarters Agreement signed with the French Government came into force

1989 On 27 November, the organisation's new Headquarters building in Lyon was officially inaugurated

1994 The number of Member States reached 176

Under Article 2[18] of the Organisation's Constitution, INTERPOL's aims are: "

(a) To ensure and promote the widest possible mutual assistance between all criminal police authorities, within the limits of the laws existing in the different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

(b) To establish and develop all institutions likely to contribute effectively to the prevention and suppression of ordinary law crimes." The limits of its action are laid down in Article 3: "It is strictly forbidden for the Organisation to undertake any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character." According to the interpretation given to Article 3, a political offence is one which is considered to be of a predominantly political nature because of the surrounding circumstances and underlying motives, even if the offence itself is covered by the ordinary criminal law in the country in which it was committed. This interpretation, based on the predominant aspects of the offence, is embodied in a resolution adopted by INTERPOL's General Assembly in 1951. In addition, a resolution adopted in 1984 states that, in general, offences are not considered to be political when they are committed outside a 'conflict area'and when the victims are not connected with the aims or objectives pursued by the offenders.

It helps to exchange the criminal and other information between law-enforcement agencies of the state and divisions of a Interpol, and the appropriate police organizations of countries of foreign countries and provides a kind of a link in international cooperation on struggle against criminality.

Interpol's governing bodies are its General Assembly and its Executive Committee; these are deliberative organs, with decision-making and supervisory powers, which meet periodically. The Organisation's permanent departments constitute the General Secretariat which is responsible for implementing the decisions and recommendations adopted by the two deliberative organs and whose close contacts with the INTERPOL National Central Bureaus (NCBs) in the various member countries provide the framework for day-to-day international police co-operation. The NCBs, which are national bodies, are responsible for liaison between the Member States and with the General Secretariat.

1. General Assembly The General Assembly is composed of delegates appointed by the governments of Member States. It meets once a year. The Assembly is INTERPOL's supreme governing body and takes all the major decisions affecting general policy, resources needed for international co-operation, working methods, finances and programmes of activities. It also elects the Organisation's officers. Generally speaking, the Assembly takes decisions by a simple majority in the form of resolutions or recommendations. Each Member State represented has one vote.

2. Executive Committee The Executive Committee has thirteen members who are elected by the General Assembly from among the Member States' delegates. The President of the Organisation is elected for a four-year term of office. He chairs General Assembly sessions and Executive Committee meetings, makes certain that decisions taken by the Organisation's governing bodies are implemented, and maintains close contact with the Secretary General. The three Vice-Presidents and nine ordinary members are all elected for three-year terms of office. The 13 Executive Committee members are elected on the basis of equitable geographic distribution and must be from different countries. The Executive Committee usually meets three times a year. It ensures that General Assembly decisions are implemented, prepares the agenda for General Assembly sessions, approves the programme of activities and draft budget before they are submitted to the Assembly, and supervises the management of the General Secretariat.

General Secretariat (Raymond E. Kendall QPM MA Secretary General, INTERPOL ) The General Secretariat is the permanent administrative and technical body through which INTERPOL operates. It implements the decisions taken by the General Assembly and the Executive Committee, directs and co-ordinates actions designed to combat international crime, centralizes information on crime and criminals, and maintains contact with national and international authorities. The General Secretariat is staffed by the Secretary General and the technical and administrative personnel needed to carry out the Organisation's work.

The Secretariat is administered by the Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly for a five-year term of office. He is answerable to the General Assembly and the Executive Committee for the Organisation's general and financial management. The General Secretariat staff are international officials and, as such, must act solely in the interests of the Organisation.

The staff can be divided into three categories: Officials seconded to the Organisation by their national administrations; Officials detached to the Organisation by their national administrations; Officials under contract who are employed by the Organisation to carry out tasks that do not come within the scope of police work.

Secretary General's Executive Office The technical and administrative support unit which assists the Secretary General in his work comprises the Executive Office itself, the Public Relations Department and a secretariat. Financial control Financial matters are the responsibility of a Financial Controller whose task is to prepare the budget and ensure that, once adopted, it is implemented in accordance with the Organisation's regulations and procedures. General Administration (Division I) This Division is responsible for managing the Organisation's accounts, managing staff, equipment and general services, preparing General Assembly sessions and other meetings organised by INTERPOL, as well as for producing the Organisation's documents (translation, typing, printing and mailing). The Division comprises the Document Production Sub-Division, the Accounts and Finance Department, the Security Section, the General Services Section, the Personnel and Social Welfare Sub-Division, and the Conferences and Missions Office.

Liaison and Criminal Intelligence Division (Division II) This Division is responsible for centralising police information and for handling international criminal cases. It manages the computerised processing of police information and the electronic archive system, ensures that the internal Deletion Rules are applied to files, drafts international notices and summaries of criminal cases, and organises meetings and symposia on cases or special topics.

The Liaison and Criminal Intelligence Division is composed of the European Liaison Bureau, the Regional Co-ordination Bureau and four Sub-Divisions, each of which deals with specific areas of international crime. Sub-Division 1 deals with general crime (offences against persons and property, organized crime and terrorism), Sub-Division 2 deals with economic and financial crime (fraud, counterfeiting of currency and travel documents, and funds derived from criminal activities), Sub-Division 3 deals with illicit drug traffic and Sub-Division 4 deals with criminal intelligence. The Criminal Intelligence Sub-Division is responsible for processing information intended for the NCBs. It uses the most up-to-date and sophisticated technology and has five sections, making it possible to respond immediately to NCBs requesting police information.

The Message Research and Response Branch (MRRB) The role of the MRRB is to enable the General Secretariat and the NCBs to process and record police information in accordance with the rules on data protection and the deletion of information. It must respond to requests from NCBs without delay and in accordance with the principles of international police co-operation and data protection. It also works closely with the specialized groups of the Liaison and Criminal Intelligence Division.

The International Notices Section This section's main task is to draft and publish notices at the request of the NCBs, with emphasis on rapid circulation. The Section works closely with the specialised groups of the Liaison and Criminal Intelligence Division. All the paper files in the General Secretariat's records section, and all messages received since lst October 1989, are electronically scanned. Finally, this section is responsible for checking that the rules on the deletion of police information held by the General Secretariat are observed.

The Fingerprinting and Identification Department The expert staff in this department are responsible for processing fingerprints and photographs, and updating their files.

The Automated Search and Archives (ASA) Section This section is engaged in electronically archiving all criminal data received at the General Secretariat and in operating the Automated Search Facility (ASF). This enables all INTERPOL's NCBs and official services with a law-enforcement mission, and which are entitled, to have direct access to and consult the database of selected information.

The Analytical Criminal Intelligence Unit (ACIU) The ACIU was set up in 1993 to provide a centralised crime analysis capability within the Liaison and Criminal Intelligence Division. The units role is to provide the General Secretariat and INTERPOL's member countries with crime analysis support, so as to develop the necessary tactical and strategic intelligence relating to international crime, making it possible to define criminal networks more accurately, to determine enforcement priorities and to plan effective follow-up enforcement action.

European Liaison Bureau To strengthen co-operation between European member countrles, the General Assembly decided, at its 54th session in 1985, to establish a European Secretariat at the General Secretariat. In 1988, the European Secretariat was given the additional responsibility of acting as a European Liaison Bureau (ELB) in order to provide the European region with a liaison unit within the General Secretariat. The main tasks of the ELB are to provide secretariat services for INTERPOL's European activities (for instance, the activities of the INTERPOL European Committee and the European Regional Conference), and to offer liaison fscilitles to European member countries in the context of complex cases requiring international co-operation and to establish rapid contacts in urgent matters. The European Liaison Bureau is sttached to the Liaison and Criminal Intelligence Division.

Regional Co-ordination Bureau The Regional Co-ordination Bureau was established in June 1994 in the light of the growing importance of regional activities. The Bureau's responsibilities include: defining tbe existing regional elements of the structure for police co-operation (within INTERPOL) that might usefully be adopted by other regions; promoting the creation of and organising administrative support for Regional Committees, following the model of the INTERPOL European Committee; co-ordinating and promoting the activities of existing Regional and Sub-Regional Bureaus (other than the European Liaison Bureau; researching the demand for the creation of additional Regional and Sub-Regional Bureaus and, in co-operation with the Legal Affairs Division, developing the necessary framework for their establishment where appropriate; in conjunction with the Technical Support Division, providing a liaison facility for implementing the Regional Modernisation Programme outside Europe; overseeing the organisation of the programme of activities for Regional Conferences outside Europe; liaising with the Technical Support Division to ensure that the police response to technical improvements being made at the NCBs is adequate. This might include arranging training about the type of information to be communicated via the telecommunications network; within the context of items 1 to 4 above, promoting 'good practice' and co-ordinating the implementation, at NCB level, of initiatives arising from the 'INTERPOL 2000' project.

Legal Affairs (Division III) The main role of Division III is to act as the Organisation's legal department. The responsibilities of the Head of Division and the two legal sub-divisions (one dealing with international law, the other with public and contract law) include: giving legal opinions on matters relating to the Organisation's activities and to international police co-operation; drafting headquarters agreements and other agreements with States or with international organisations; drafting statutory texts and other regulations; preparing contracts; assisting in the drafting of certain General Assembly resolutions; providing secretariat services for the Supervisory Board for the Internal Control of INTERPOL's Archives; updating circulars relating to the pre-extradition procedure applicable in each Member State; drafting studies or reports on the legal aspects of international police co-operation.

The Division is also responsible, via the ICPR and General Reference Sub-Division, for: researching, analysing and circulating reference material on trends in international crime and the means deployed by Member States and international institutions in preventing and combating crime; compiling and publishing international crime statistics; publishing the International Criminal Police Review (six issues per year).

Other responsibilities of the Division include: organising and providing training (through the Training Unit); preparing certain international symposia; representing INTERPOL at international conferences and meetings on legal or criminological subjects.

Technical Support Division (Division 4) This Division is responsible for studying, developing and applying the telecommunications and computer technology which is essential for the Organisation's operation. It is composed of a Telecommunications Sub-Division, an Electronic Data Processing Sub-Division (development and operations), an Automated Search and Archives Section, and a Research and Development Section. The Division provides the various departments of the General Secretariat, as well as the Organisation's Regional Bureaux and National Central Bureaux, with technical support in all matters connected with telecommunications and computerisation

4. Supervisory Board for the Internal Control of INTERPOL's Archives At its 51st session (Torremolinos, 1982), the General Assembly approved the creation of a Supervisory Board composed of five members of different nationalities.

It is the duty of this Board to verify that personal information contained in INTERPOL's archives is: (a) obtained and processed in accordance with the provisions of the Organisation's Constitution and the interpretation thereof given by the appropriate organs of the Organisation; (b) recorded for specific purposes and not used in any way that is incompatible with those purposes; (c) accurate; (d) kept for a limited period in accordance with the conditions laid down by the Organisation. Nationals or permanent residents of the Organisation's Member States may ask the Supervisory Board to make available a list of the archives held by INTERPOL.

They may also ask the Board to verify that any personal information which the Organisation holds about them complies with the conditions listed above. The Board notifies the requesting party that the verifications requested have been carried out. The Supervisory Board meets three times a year. It submits an annual report on its activities to the Organisation's Executive Committee. During its meetings, it checks on personal information in the files, both at the request of private individuals and on its own initiative

5. The National Central Bureaux (NCBs) Experience has shown that there are three main factors which tend to hamper international co-operation. In the first place, the different structures of various police forces often make it difficult for outsiders to know which particular department is empowered to deal with a case or to supply information. Secondly, the fact that different countries use different languages can become a barrier to communication.

Finally, problems can arise from the fact that legal systems vary considerably throughout the world. In an attempt to solve these problems, it was decided that the Government of every Member State should appoint one permanent police department to serve as its country's INTERPOL National Central Bureau and act as the focal point for international co-operation. In most cases the department chosen is a high-level one, with wide powers, able to reply to any request from the General Secretariat or from another NCB and capable of launching large-scale police action by other national law enforcement agencies whenever necessary.

The NCBs are staffed solely by their own countries' police officers or government officials who always operate within the limits set by their own laws. The NCBs' activities can be summarised as follows: they collect documents and criminal intelligence which have a direct bearing on international police co-operation from sources in their own countries, and pass this material on to the other NCBs and the General Secretariat; they ensure that police action or operations requested by another country's NCB are carried out on their territory; they receive requests for information, checks, etc, from other NCBs and reply to such requests; they transmit requests for international co-operation made by their own courts or police departments to the NCBs of other countries; the Heads of NCBs attend INTERPOL General Assembly sessions as members of their countries' delegations, and subsequently ensure that the Assembly's resolutions are implemented.

The NCBs communicate directly among themselves. However, they keep the General Secretariat informed of their investigations so that the latter can perform its task of centralising information and co-ordinating co-operation.

6. Advisors For assistance on specific matters, INTERPOL can consult Advisers appointed by the Executive Committee. These Advisers serve for three years and are highly qualified experts with worldwide reputations in fields of interest to the Organisation.

7. Standing Committee on Information Technology (SCIT) The Standing Committee is composed of technical experts representing a certain number of NCBs. It meets twice a year to give expert opinions and advice to the Executive Committee on any new technology being considered for the Organisation.

Besides Interpol, another international organization which plays an important role in international cooperation on combating international crime is the United Nations Organization.

Among main bodies a UN to questions of the prevention of criminality and struggle from it(her) attend: general Assembly, ECOSOC, Secretary a UN and number of the specialized establishments a UN.

The UN General Assembly considers the reports of the UN General Secretary on major problems of international cooperation under the prevention of crime and struggle against it.

These problems also considered by the number of committees of General Assembly: main committees [Third and Sixth], Committee on the prevention of crime and struggle against it, special committees and commissions: special committee on international terrorism, and the number of workgroups.

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) - the UN main organ, which defines practical problems of organization of international cooperation by the preventing the international crime and cmbating with it. ECOSOC is authorized to make the reports on struggle against crime and to make the recommendations in this area to the UN General Assembly in order to prepare the projects of the conventions and to convoke international conferences on struggle against criminality.

UN congress on the preventing the crime and handling with the offenders - the specialized conference a UN, was established in 1950. The sessions of this Congress are conducted once per 5 years.

The participants of the Congress are the representatives of the states, of the specialized establishments a UN and its bodies.

The members of delegations from the states can be the representatives from ministries, law-enforcement agencies, scientists, experts and advisers.

To the competence of a Congress concerns: determination of main directions of cooperation of the states under the prevention of criminality, development of the programs and recommendations for the solving this problem, assistance to communications exchange and coordination of cooperation of the states in the UN on the preventing and struggle against distribution of criminality, determination of main principles of cooperation in this area.

Other body, to which the organization and coordination of cooperation of the states in struggle against criminality is assigned, is the constantly acting UN Committee on preventing of criminality and struggle against it. It consists of 27 experts acting in personal quality, appointed by ECOSOC. The sessions of the committee are conducted once per 2 years. The participants of sessions of this Committee are the representatives of UN special establishments engaged with problems of criminality, interdepartmental (Interpol) and international government agencies (International association of the international law, International association of the lawyers - democrats etc.).

The specialized establishments a UN - UNESCO, ILO, ICAO, WHO also concern the questions of struggle and prevention of crime and as agreed with ECOSOC introduce the proposals to the appropriate bodies of the UN.

Among bodies a UN occupied with questions of struggle against criminality, the special place occupies The Institute of the national correspondents . It is the body of the special competence created in 1950 and consists of the representatives of the states and have high qualification in the field of the national jurisdiction.

The correspondents inform in bodies of the UN, on practical measures methods of struggle and prevention of criminality, which are carried out in countries, represented by them,, and also inform the appropriate bodies of the countries on main directions of struggle against criminality in the international scale.

Prospects in combating against crime and strenghtening law and order for maintenance of economic and cultural development.

In a history of each state the transition to new social quality, always passed on a background of criminality. And the growth of criminality is not only serious obstacle in a way of reforms, but in certain circumstances bears direct threat to achievement of the purposes, scheduled in transitive period.

Together with the further development of economy and transition to the new level in various spheres of civil society andstatehood, there is a change and development of various kinds of criminality, as there appears new patterns of ownership, business and other changes accompanying the process of transition to the market economy.

In this plan it is necessary to note that alongside with change and increasement of separate kinds of crimes occur new, up to the present moment unknown to our country kinds of a crime.

However, as was already marked above on background of common decrease of criminality the number of separate crimes, and particularly smuggling (mainly weapon and narcotic means) grows.

It would be worth upon creation of a state programme on struggle against criminality and preventing it to include in this programme items on the conclusion of the intergovernmental and interdepartmental agreements on struggle against smuggling.

It is necessary to indicate one more aspect of smuggling making it in modern conditions as a dangerous crime of international character, frequently closed with other dangerous encroachments to the financial system of the states. In a 1976 in India was arrested Chando Nakhat. By creating the ramified network of the agents, using the blank forms of the documents of Reserve Bank of India he transferred the large sums of the public funds in a foreign currency to the banks of USA, Switzerland, Hongkong.

In these banks the money had been converted to gold which then secretly was imported into India, where it was sold of Indian currency and bringing superprofits and loosening a national economy.

It is obvious, that the modern updates of smuggling and crimes, connected to it are not limited. The criminals armed by such craft, can be involved as well in such financial crimes as legalization of the criminal incomes and counterfeiting.

As well in some interstate agreements and agreements the necessity of cooperation and on the given kind of crimes was determined.

Other factor of a rarity of this kind of a crime, on my sight, is uncompletely developed market economy with its elements, where carried out the free movement of capital, including importation both exportation national and foreign currency from the foreign states.

At present it is the positive factor constraining growth of washing up of money, however in the near future, after achieving the certain stages of development it can become quite serious problem.

Study of experience of foreign countries (first of all such countries with the advanced market economy as USA, Great Britain, France, Germany) in struggle against legalization of the illegal incomes and prevention of the given kind of crimes.

Conclusion of the intergovernmental agreements about mutual cooperation in the field of struggle against illegal financial transactions, including legalization of the criminal (illegal) incomes.

Within the framework of cooperation to provide mutual informationexchange, which can promote prevention, revealing, suppression and disclosing of financial transactions connected to legalization of the incomes, received illegally namely the following:

The information of legal character, particularly about the national legislation aimed against illegal financial transactions, and financial transactions connected to legalization of the incomes, received by an illegal way, sanctions stipulated for such infringements;

About the forms and methods of the prevention(warning), revealing, suppression and disclosing of illegal financial transactions, and also financial transactions connected to legalization of the incomes, received by an illegal way;

About transferring of currency values between the states-psrticipants of agreement;

About infringements of realization of financial transactions both development of the forms and methods of legalization of the incomes received by an illegal way;

About financial transactions connected to reception of the incomes, which, under the items of information of competent bodies, probably, are received illegaly;

Interaction on realization of measures directed to reveal illegal (from the point of view of the national legislation of country) of financial transactions, and also financial transactions connected to legalization of the incomes, received by an illegal way;

Realization of joint analytical studies on problems touching mutual interests of countries - participants of the agreement in financial transactions, incomes, connected to legalizations, received by an illegal way, rendering assistance, in training the experts, in creation of information systems ensuring fulfilment of problems on prevention and revealing of financial transactions, incomes, connected to legalizations, received by an illegal way;

Other kind of the crime, encroaching on economic development of the state - counterfeiting, is also closely connected to all considered in the present work crimes, especially with smuggling.

For effective struggle against the this crime and its prevention the expedient acceptance of the following measures is recommended:

Conclusion of the bilateral agreements or creation of the regional convention about rendering of the mutual assitance on struggle against counterfeiting and definition of them in the rules of these documents.

Harmonistaion of norms of the legislation of the agreeing states, information exchange, among the competent agencies of agreeing countries about revealing false legal currency of these countries, and also about the preparing or committed crimes, about participation of juridical bodies andindividuals in these crimes, realization of joint scientific conferences, communication exchange and training of the experts,

The realization of the above-stated measures would promote the further reduction of quantitative structure of crimes of the this kind.

By the last kind of offences ecnroaching the economic development of the states is an illegal turn-over of narcotic means and psychotropic substances.

This kind of crimes not only encroaches the economic development of the states, but also represents real threat to safety for bases of the state, as these crimes closely connected to the organized crime which gathered the capital by a criminal way, is triying to penetrate into imperous structures.

The important condition of increase of efficiency of struggle against an illegal turn-over of narcotic means and psychotropic substances is strengthening preventive measures. The latter requires revealing the reasons and conditions promoting their commitment. For example such as:

Insufficient work of law-enforcement agencies on statement on the record-keeping of the individuals inclined to commitment crimes, connected with drugs. So about 33 % of the early condemned for the indicated crime persons were not delivered on the preventive record-keeping;[26]

Extraction of a large profit by the people producing and selling narcotic substances. In a pursuit of profit distributors constantly use all methods to expand a circle of the consumers of drugs. The extraction of huge profits attracts to narcobusiness the organized crime.

The experience of struggle against narcomafia in foreign countries shows, that one of major directions of activity of the organized crime is the wide circulation of narcotic means and psychotropic substances.

The attributes of participation of structures of the organized crime in our republic are present.

To such attributes it is possible to relate: participation in illegal operations with narcotic means of a fair quantity of the persons; complex hierarchical structure of criminal groups (availability one or several organizers, divisions executing security and intelligence functions); connection of criminal groups with the separate workers of law-enforcement bodies and state structures;

Absence of due interaction between law-enforcement bodies and wide sections of state and public organizations.

Main defect of work on struggle against narcobusiness is singlepurpose approach of law-enforcement bodies, It is impossible to win drug additcion as a social evil, using the forces only of law-enforcement bodies. It is the problem of all our society.

With the purposes of increase the efficiency of preventive measures of struggle against crimes connected with drugs, it is represented expedient:

During realization of measures on revealing and destruction of illegal crops conatining narcotic substances to distribute optimally forces and means of law-enforcement bodies, widely attracting the representatives of public organizations;

To use advanced experience of world practice on revealing and destruction of underground plantations of plants conaining narcotic substances, struggle against illegal manufacturing and distribution of drugs;

The struggle against an illegal turn-over of narcotic means and psychotropic substances should be carried out on a basis of scientifically developed nation-wide comprehensive programme. Among main sections it should contain:

The particular(specific) purposes and problems, and also radical and complex measures on struggle against narcobusiness ;

Study and use of foreign experience of struggle against distribution of narcotic means and psychotropic substances (first of all - experience of Interpol);

Maintenance by the competent staff - experts able to handle struggle against an illegal turn-over of narcotic means and psychotropic substances. It assumes first of all training of the experts - professionals.

For these purposes in educational establishments of system of law-enforcement bodies it is necessary: to create the specialized groups, branches or faculties with training of the future experts under the separate programs; to organize short-term courses, where the employees of departments would increase professional skills on struggle against narcobusiness; invitation in educational establishments of system of law-enforcement bodies of the teachers from foreign countries for teaching separate courses connected with these subjects; exchange by experience or professional training in the appropriate divisions of a Interpol or law-enforcement bodies of other states of the employees.

And one of obligatory conditions of successful work on struggle against narcobusiness and qualitative preparation of the experts in educational establishments (divisions) should become study and knowledge of one - two foreign languages.

It is represented, that the realization of the above-stated proposals will promote strengthening of struggle against an illegal turn-over of narcotic means and psychotropic substances.

In front of the developing states there is a complex problem of search of optimum conditions for legal struggle against crimes encroaching their economic development.

These problems are connected not only to improvement of the criminal legislation and its practical application by bodies of the criminal justice, but the usage only measures of legal struggle against crime in particular with economic, is insufficient.

In this plan, one of questions worth before the states for maintenance of successful struggle against crimes damaging the economic development of the states is realization of successful international cooperation on struggle against this kind of offences.

In the plan of legal struggle against crime the process of integration is displayed in harmonization of the national legislation in conformity with requests of the international agreements, implemenation of norms of the international law to the national legislation, conclusion of the interstate, intergovernmental and interdepartmental agreements on rendering the mutual assistance on criminal legal relations, participation in international organizations (such as Interpol), exchange of scientific and technical information and experience, realization of a joint conferences and so on.

The present work reviewed and analyzed the questions of one group of crimes of international character, namely criminal offences harming the economic development of the states (smuggling, legalization of the illegal incomes, counterfeiting and illegal turn-over of narcotic means and psychotropic substances), and also questions and problems of realization of international cooperation of the states on struggle against these kinds of crimes were considered.

With allowance for above-stated, the decision of the most essential problems of cooperation seems especially important, to me in the field of struggle against crime, protection of law and order and maintenance of the rights and interests of the citizens.

First of all, this is the problem of improvement of legislative base, which purpose - creation of conditions for closer and fruitful communications of competent agencies, for realization of more effective struggle against crime.

Also at present stage the special importance acquires such aspects of law-enforcement activity as problems of participation of the representatives of bodies of the justice in development of new documents directed to the prevent the crime and to struggle,exchange of experience, scientific and technical information and monitoring of changes of the last scientific and technological achievements, so that the norms of the legislation accordingly reacted to these changes and innovations.

International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States by Kevin W. Godley, Brian Wilson (extraction) After disinte




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