A contrastive analysis of consonants of English and Turkish languages

 















A contrastive analysis of consonants of English and Turkish languages


Content


Introduction1. Consonant systems of English and Turkish languages

1.1Classification of English consonant system

1.2Classification of Turkish consonant system

.3 Summary2. General similarities and differences of the consonant sounds in English and Turkish


Introduction

study of language has been a constant preoccupation with more or less professional researchers for thousands of years. Since the earliest times, much before the birth of linguistics as a distinct scholarly discipline, people have been aware of the essential role language plays not only in their everyday life, but also as a characteristic feature of mankind, radically differentiating human beings from other species of the animal kingdom. fact that language acts as a fundamental link between ourselves and the world around us and that in the absence of language our relation to the universe and to our fellows is dramatically impaired is something that people have been (at least intuitively) aware of since the beginning of history. Suffice it to mention that different cultures seem to associate speech problems with intellectual deficiencies. The origin of language (believed to be divine in most ancient cultures), the relation between language and thinking, the question if we can think without the help of language (and if we can, what kind of thinking is that), the manner in which human beings (who are not, obviously, born with the ability to speak, but have, however, an innate capacity for language acquisition) come, with an amazing rapidity, to successfully use language, beginning with the very first stages of their existence (the acquisition of language actually parallels the birth of the childs self-consciousness and the latter can hardly be imagined without the former) have puzzled researchers for centuries and none of these questions has actually received a satisfactory and universally accepted answer.is obviously the main system available for us, not only for knowing the world and understanding it, but also for accumulating, storing and communicating information. Language can thus be understood as the main system we have for communicating among us. All the other systems of conveying information are actually based on this essential, fundamental one. Communication by means of language can thus be understood as a complex process actually consisting of several stages. Any act of communication basically takes place between two participants: on the one hand we have the source of the information, the person who has to communicate something, the sender of the message that contains the information, and on the other hand we need a second party, the recipient, the addressee of the message, the beneficiary of the communication act, in other words the person(s) to whom the information contained in the message is addressed. Since the sender has to convey a message, and the transmission is to take place on the basis of a system of signs (a code), the first thing the sender has to do is to encode or codify his message, in other words to render the contents of the message by means of the signs of the respective code (the language) .The next stage is obviously represented by the transmission of the message proper, which can be achieved in several ways (depending of the type of communication; e.g. written or oral). Once the message reaches the recipient, the process should unfold in the opposite direction. That is, the message gets to the recipient in an encoded form so that the recipient has to decode it and grasp its meaning.importance of sounds as vehicles of meaning is something people have been aware of for thousands of years. However, systematic studies on the speech sounds only appeared with the development of modern sciences. The term phonetics used in connection with such studies comes from Greek and its origins can be traced back to the verb phфnein, to speak, in its turn related to phфnз, sound. The end of the 18th century witnessed a revival of the interest in the studying of the sounds of various languages and the introduction of the term phonology. The latter comes to be, however, distinguished from the former only more than a century later with the development of structuralism which emphasizes the essential contrastive role of classes of sounds which are labeled phonemes. The terms continue to be used, however, indiscriminately until the prestige of phonology as a distinct discipline is finally established in the first half of the 20th century. Though there is no universally accepted point of view about a clear-cut border line between the respective domains of phonetics and phonology as, indeed, we cannot talk about a phonological system ignoring the phonetic aspects it involves and, on the other hand, any phonetic approach should take into account the phonological system that is represented by any language, most linguists will agree about some fundamental distinctions between the two.great interest to compare studying of languages of different structures by scientists is explained first of all that it can help to ascertain general and regular rules of language communication. This diploma paper is devoted to comparative analysis of consonant systems of English and Turkish languages. compare the analysis we outcome of that fact that the languages being the most important means of communication and first of all appears in sound speech. That is why the study of foreign languages begins with the creation of pronouncing skills.possession of new pronouncing skillss is accompanied by some difficulties caused by means of interference, i.e. unconscious transference pronouncing norms of native language to pronouncing norms of studying language. teacher who is aware of interference of native language has a possibility to prevent mistakes, to work out effective system of preventive exercises, which can foresee the mistakes, when the sounds coincide a teacher can use the skills of positive transference of norm of native language.

The novelty of the study. Novelty of the diploma work is that it adds some details to what was studied before. This theme is actual for today and will always be. Many linguists are interested in the features of consonant systems in English and their equivalents and opposites in the Turkish language. Due to the analysis which is used in this diploma work to determine the features of consonant systems and to reveal their equivalents in the Turkish language, it is possible to notice the differences and peculiarities of consonant sounds and the way of their transference into the Turkish language.

The subject of the study is peculiarities of consonant systems and their equivalents and opposites in the Modern Turkish language. studying of the peculiarities of native and studying languages has a great significance when teaching.

Actuality of this theme is that practice of English pronunciation, especially on the primary level. comparing any languages, if the languages of one group or different, similar or opposite features are appeared. The results of comparative linguistic analysis help to prevent on the scientific level the possibilities of interference and foresee the forecast of possible mistakes. the very beginning of studying the language it is very important to watch thoroughly for a learner to pronounce the sounds, to have a right intonation. It is impossible to miss any wrong pronunciation of sounds. It is almost impossible to correct wrong pronunciation at the end of studying. That is why the primary stage in pronunciation of foreign language is the most important. is known that English belongs to German group of Indo-European languages and Turkish belongs to the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family are different from one another by their sound characteristics. It plays a great role in the method of language teaching. purpose of this diploma paper is the study of theoretical basis of English phonetics, comparing with the theoretical basis of Turkish phonetics, to make comparative analysis of consonant systems in modern English and Turkish languages.English language gradually becomes one of the most widely used languages in the world. There are large numbers of students in institutions of higher and further education who are learning English for many purposes: as the medium of the literature and culture of English-speaking countries; for access to scholarly and technological publications; to qualify as English teachers, translators, or interpreters; to improve their chances of employment or promotion in such areas as tourist trade, international progammes for economic or military aid. In countries where it is a second language, English is commonly used as the medium for higher education, at least for scientific and technological subjects. of this diploma paper is that it will be useful both to teachers, and to students. In teaching activity it can be applied in studying of such courses as practical course of translation, theoretical course of translation, practicum on culture of speech communication, etc. The analysis made in this diploma work will help to predict mistakes while speaking, will help to practical exercises for development of skills of phonetics. main task is to make comparative analysis of consonant systems in modern English and Turkish languages, find similarities and differences between English and Turkish consonant systems, to define difficulties which encounter the students while reading the consonant phonemes, which are necessary to overcome, and also to study the theoretical basis of English phonetics and compare them with the theoretical basis of Turkish in order to understand the structure of Modern English language.

The structure of the degree work. The present diploma work consists of the introduction, two chapters, the conclusion and bibliography and references.introduction explains the actuality, the novelty and the subject of the study as well as the objective and tasks, the theoretical and practical value of the study; enumerates the methods of research.I is devoted to the English consonant system and their classification as well as the consonant systems of Turkish language and their classification It includes the survey of various classifications of consonant. At the end of the chapter there is a summary. II includes the comparative analysis of consonant systems of English and Turkish languages. This analysis can give us a possibility to find some similarities and differences between the consonants of English and Turkish languages. conclusion sums up the results of the study.references we can find the general tables of consonant sounds.


Chapter 1. Consonant systems of English and Turkish languages


In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. The word consonant comes from Latin and means "sounding with" or "sounding together," the idea being that consonants don't sound on their own, but occur only with a nearby vowel, which is the case in Latin. This conception of consonants, however, does not reflect the modern linguistic understanding which defines consonants in terms of vocal tract constriction.the number of consonants in the world's languages is much greater than the number of consonant letters in any one alphabet, linguists have devised systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to assign a unique symbol to each possible consonant. In fact, the Latin alphabet, which is used to write English, has fewer consonant letters than English has consonant sounds, so some letters represent more than one consonant, and digraphs like "sh" and "th" are used to represent some sounds. Many speakers aren't even aware that the "th" sound in "this" is a different sound from the "th" sound in "thing" (in the IPA they're [ð] and [?], respectively).consonant can be distinguished by several features:

·The manner of articulation is the method that the consonant is articulated, such as nasal (through the nose), stop (complete obstruction of air), or approximant (vowel like).

·The place of articulation is where in the vocal tract the obstruction of the consonant occurs, and which speech organs are involved. Places include bilabial (both lips), alveolar (tongue against the gum ridge), and velar (tongue against soft palate). Additionally, there may be a simultaneous narrowing at another place of articulation, such as palatalisation or pharyngealisation.

·The phonation of a consonant is how the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. When the vocal cords vibrate fully, the consonant is called voiced; when they do not vibrate at all, it's voiceless.

·The voice onset time (VOT) indicates the timing of the phonation. Aspiration is a feature of VOT.

·The airstream mechanism is how the air moving through the vocal tract is powered. Most languages have exclusively pulmonic egressive consonants, which use the lungs and diaphragm, but ejectives, clicks, and implosives use different mechanisms.

·The length is how long the obstruction of a consonant lasts. This feature is borderline distinctive in English, as in "wholly" [ho?lli] vs. "holy" [ho?li], but cases are limited to morpheme boundaries. Unrelated roots are differentiated in various languages such as Italian, Japanese and Finnish, with two length levels, "single" and "geminate". Estonian and some Sami languages have three phonemic lengths: short, geminate, and long geminate, although the distinction between the geminate and overlong geminate includes suprasegmental features.

·The articulatory force is how much muscular energy is involved. This has been proposed many times, but no distinction relying exclusively on force has ever been demonstrated. English consonants can be classified by a combination of these features, such as "voiceless alveolar stop consonant" [t]. In this case the airstream mechanism is omitted.linguistics (articulatory phonetics), manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants. For any place of articulation, there may be several manners, and therefore several homorganic consonants.parameter of manner is stricture, that is, how closely the speech organs approach one another. Parameters other than stricture are those involved in the ar sounds (taps and trills), and the sibilancy of fricatives. Often nasality and laterality are included in manner, but phoneticians such as Peter Ladefoged consider them to be independent.

Stricture

From greatest to least stricture, speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants (with occlusion, or blocked airflow), fricative consonants (with partially blocked and therefore strongly turbulent airflow), approximants (with only slight turbulence), and vowels (with full unimpeded airflow). Affricates often behave as if they were intermediate between stops and fricatives, but phonetically they are sequences of stop plus fricative., sounds may move along this cline toward less stricture in a process called lenition.

Other parameters

Sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth. Fricatives at coronal places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant, sibilants being the more common.and flaps are similar to very brief stops. However, their articulation and behavior is distinct enough to be considered a separate manner, rather than just length.[specify]involve the vibration of one of the speech organs. Since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture, the two may be combined. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative. Trilled affricates are also known.airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound. It is most commonly found in nasal stops and nasal vowels, but nasal fricatives, taps, and approximants are also found. When a sound is not nasal, it is called oral. An oral stop is often called a plosive, while a nasal stop is generally just called a nasal.is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue. This can also be combined with other manners, resulting in lateral approximants (the most common), lateral flaps, and lateral fricatives and affricates.

Individual manners

·Plosive, or oral stop, where there is complete occlusion (blockage) of both the oral and nasal cavities of the vocal tract, and therefore no air flow. Examples include English /p t k/ (voiceless) and /b d g/ (voiced). If the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion; if it is voiceless, a plosive is completely silent. What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the preceding vowel, and well as the release burst and its effect on the following vowel. The shape and position of the tongue (the place of articulation) determine the resonant cavity that gives different plosives their characteristic sounds. All languages have plosives.

·Nasal stop, usually shortened to nasal, where there is complete occlusion of the oral cavity, and the air passes instead through the nose. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasal stops their characteristic sounds. Examples include English /m, n/. Nearly all languages have nasals, the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island.

·Fricative, sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous frication (turbulent and noisy airflow) at the place of articulation. Examples include English /f, s/ (voiceless), /v, z/ (voiced), etc. Most languages have fricatives, though many have only an /s/. However, the Australian languages are almost completely devoid of fricatives of any kind.

·Sibilants are a type of fricative where the airflow is guided by a groove in the tongue toward the teeth, creating a high-pitched and very distinctive sound. These are by far the most common fricatives. Fricatives at coronal (front of tongue) places of articulation are usually, though not always, sibilants. English sibilants include /s/ and /z/.

·Lateral fricatives are a rare type of fricative, where the frication occurs on one or both sides of the edge of the tongue. The "ll" of the Welsh language and the "hl" of Zulu are lateral fricatives.

·Affricate, which begins like a plosive, but this releases into a fricative rather than having a separate release of its own. The English letters "ch" and "j" represent affricates. Affricates are quite common around the world, though less common than fricatives.

·Flap, often called a tap, is a momentary closure of the oral cavity. The "tt" of "utter" and the "dd" of "udder" are pronounced as a flap in North American English. Many linguists distinguish taps from flaps, but there is no consensus on what the difference might be. No language relies on such a difference. There are also lateral flaps.

·Trill, in which the articulator (usually the tip of the tongue) is held in place, and the airstream causes it to vibrate. The double "r" of Spanish "perro" is a trill. Trills and flaps, where there are one or more brief occlusions, constitute a class of consonant called rhotics.

·Approximant, where there is very little obstruction. Examples include English /w/ and /r/. In some languages, such as Spanish, there are sounds which seem to fall between fricative and approximant.

·One use of the word semivowel is a type of approximant, pronounced like a vowel but with the tongue closer to the roof of the mouth, so that there is slight turbulence. In English, /w/ is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel /u/, and /j/ (spelled "y") is the semivowel equivalent of the vowel /i/ in this usage. Other descriptions use semivowel for vowel-like sounds that are not syllabic, but do not have the increased stricture of approximants. These are found as elements in diphthongs. The word may also be used to cover both concepts.

·Lateral approximants, usually shortened to lateral, are a type of approximant pronounced with the side of the tongue. English /l/ is a lateral. Together with the rhotics, which have similar behavior in many languages, these form a class of consonant called liquids.

Broader classifications

Manners of articulation with substantial obstruction of the airflow (plosives, fricatives, affricates) are called obstruents. These are prototypically voiceless, but voiced obstruents are extremely common as well. Manners without such obstruction (nasals, liquids, approximants, and also vowels) are called sonorants because they are nearly always voiced. Voiceless sonorants are uncommon, but are found in Welsh and Classical Greek (the spelling "rh"), in Tibetan (the "lh" of Lhasa), and the "wh" in those dialects of English which distinguish "which" from "witch".may also be called resonants, and some linguists prefer that term, restricting the word 'sonorant' to non-vocoid resonants (that is, nasals and liquids, but not vowels or semi-vowels). Another common distinction is between stops (plosives and nasals) and continuants (all else); affricates are considered to be both, because they are sequences of stop plus fricative.

Principles of Classification of English Consonants

The particular quality of a consonant depends on the work of the vocal cords, the position of the soft palate and the kind of noise that results when the tongue or the lips obstruct the airflow.

Linguists distinguish two types of articulatory obstruction that are formed when pronouncing consonants: complete and incomplete.

A complete obstruction is formed when organs of speech come into contact with each other and the air-passage is blocked.

An incomplete obstruction is formed when articulating organs (articulators) are held so close to a point of articulation as to narrow, or constrict, the air-passage without blocking it.


1.1Classification of English consonant system


There are all in all 24 consonants in the English language and they are usually classified according to the following four principles:

I. According to the type of obstruction and the manner of noise production.

II. According to the active organ of speech and the place of obstruction.

III. According to the work of the vocal cords and the force of articulation.

IV. According to the position of the soft palate.

1.

According to the Degree of NoiseClass A. Noise ConsonantsClass B. SonorantsVary: 1. In the manner of articulation. 2. In the place of articulation. 3. In the work of the vocal cords. 4. In the force of articulation.Vary: 1. In the manner of articulation. 2. In the place of articulation. 3. In the position of the soft palate. 4. In the direction of the air stream.

According to the type of obstruction and the manner of noise production.


) According to the type of obstruction, all English consonants are divided into occlusive and constrictive.

  1. Occlusive consonants are produced with a complete obstruction formed by the articulating organs, when the airflow is blocked in the mouth cavity.
  2. Constrictive consonants are produced with an incomplete or restricted obstruction, that is by a narrowing of the airflow.

Occlusive consonants may be: (1) noise and (2) sonorants.


the production of occlusive sonorants organs of speech form a complete obstruction in the mouth cavity, which is not released. The soft palate is lowered and the air escapes through the nasal cavity. In occlusive sonorants tone prevails over noise.Turkish occlusive sonorants are: [m], [n].

b) According to the manner of noise production, occlusive noise consonants are divided into plosive consonants (or stops) and affricates.


the production of occlusive plosives (or stops) active organs of speech form a complete obstruction to the airflow, which is then released with a plosion. the English language voiceless occlusive plosives [p, t, k ] are aspirated, with the exception of the case when they are preceded by [s], like in clusters [sp, st, sk ].Turkish occlusive plosives are: [p, b, t, d, k', k' g', g' ].the production of occlusive affricates active organs of speech form a complete obstruction, which is then released so slowly that a considerable friction takes place at the point of articulation.Turkish occlusive affricates are: [C], [G] and [ts].consonants may also be: (1) noise and (2) sonorants.



In the production of noise constrictives active organs of speech form an incomplete or restricted obstruction.Turkish noise constrictives are: [ f, v, s, z, S, Z, h ].the production of constrictive sonorants the air-passage is fairly wide, so that the air passing through the mouth does not produce audible friction and tone prevails over noise.) According to the manner of noise production, constrictive sonorant consonants are divided into lateral consonants and median.



In the production of median sonorants the air escapes without audible friction over the central part of the tongue, the sides of the tongue being raised. English median constrictive sonorants are: [w, r, j ]; Turkish - [ r, j ].the production of lateral sonorants the tongue is pressed against the alveolar ridge or the teeth, and the sides of the tongue are lowered, leaving the air-passage flow along them. English lateral constrictive sonorants are: [ l', l ]; in Turkish - [ l ].

According to the active organ of speech and the place of obstruction.

  1. According to the active organ of speech, English consonants are devided into three groups: labial, lingual and glottal.

1. Labial consonants are articulated with one or both lips and, therefore, may be (A) bilabial and (B) labio-dental.

  1. Bilabial consonants are articulated with both lips, upper and lower. The English bilabial consonants are: [m, p, b]; the Turkish bilabial consonants are: [ m, p, b ].

(B) Labio-dental consonants are articulated with the lower lip against the upper teeth. The English labio-dental consonants are [f], [v], and the Turkish labio-dental consonants are: [f, v].

2. Lingual consonants are articulated with the tongue and may be (A) forelingual, (B) mediolingual, and (C) backlingual.

  1. Forelingual consonants are articulated with the tip or the blade of the tongue, they may fall into two subgroups: a) apical and b) cacuminal.
  2. Apical consonants are articulated by the tip of the tongue against either the upper teeth or the alveolar ridge. The English apical consonants are: [T], [D], [t], [d], [I], [n], [s], [z], the Turkish [ t, d, n, l, s, z ].
  3. Cacuminal consonants are articulated by the tip of the tongue raised against the back part of the alveolar ridge. The front of the tongue is lowered in a 'spoon-shaped' form; the English [r].

(B) Mediolingual consonants are articulated with the front of the tongue against the hard palate. For English and Turkish the mediolingual consonat is [j].

(C) Backlingual consonants are articulated by the back of the tongue against the soft palate. The English backlingual consonants are: [k], [g], [N], and the Turkish - [[k'], [k], [g'], [g].) According to the place of obstruction, English consonants are divided into (1) dental (interdental or post-dental), (2) alveolar, (3) palato-alveolar, (4) post-alveolar, (5) palatal, and (6) velar.

  1. Dental consonants are articulated against the upper teeth either with the tip or with the blade of the tongue. The English [T], [D], or with the blade of the tongue, the Turkish [t], [t'].
  2. Alveolar consonants are articulated by the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge: such English consonants as [t], [d], [n], [ l ], [s], [z], and Turkish - [t, d, s, z, l,n, r, ts].

(3) Palato-alveolar consonants are articulated by the tip and blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge or the back part of the alveolar ridge, while the front of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate: the English [S], [Z], [C], [G], and the Turkish [ Z, S ] .

  1. Post-alveolar consonants are articulated by the tip of the tongue against the back part of the alveolar ridge: the English [r].
  2. Palatal consonants are articulated by the front of the tongue being raised in the direction of the hard palate: the English, Turkish [j].
  3. Velar consonants are articulated by the back or root of the tongue raised in the direction of the velum, or against the uvula; the English [k, g, N], the Turkish [k',k, g', g].

The correspondence between the active organ of speech and the place of obstruction for the English forelingual consonants see in Table 4.2 given below.

2. Active organ of speech vs. place of obstruction

Active org./ place of obstructionForelingualMediolingualBacklingualDental/Interdentald, tAlveolar t, d, n, l, s, zAlveolar-palatal c, g, s, zPost-alveolarrPalataljVelark, g, n

According to the work of the vocal cords and the force of articulation

  1. According to the work of the vocal cords, consonants are divided into voiced and voiceless.

b) According to the force of articulation, consonants are divided into fortis (or relatively strong), and lenis (or relatively weak).English voiced consonants are lenis (relatively weak). The following English consonants are voiced and lenis: [b], [d], [g], [g], [v], [d], [z], [z], [m], [n], [n], [w], [i], [r], [j].Turkish voiceless consonants are weaker than their English counterparts, and Turkish voiced consonants are a little stronger.English voiceless consonants are fortis (relatively strong). They are pronounced with greater muscular tension and a stronger breath force than the voiced ones. The English voiceless consonants are: [p, t, k, f, T, s, C, S, h].

3.

Voiceless consonant (surd)Voiced equivalent[p] (pin)[b] (bin)[t] (ten)[d] (den)[k] (con)[g] (gone)[t?] (chin)[d?] (gin)[f] (fan)[v](van)[?] (thin, thigh)[ð] (then, thy)[s] (sip)[z] (zip)[?] (pressure)[?] (pleasure)to the position of the soft palateto the position of the soft palate, all English consonants are devided into two groups: nasal and sonorants.consonants are produced when the soft palate is lowered down and the air-passage goes through the nasal cavity, and the access to the mouth cavity is blocked.English nasal consonants are [m], [n], [n], and the Turkish - [m ], [n].

List of nasal stops:

·[m] is a voiced bilabial nasal

·[?] is a voiced labiodental nasal (SAMPA: [F])

·[n] is a dental nasal (SAMPA: [n_d]}

·[n] is an alveolar or dental nasal: see alveolar nasal

·[?] voiced retroflex nasal, common in Indic languages (SAMPA: [n`])

·[?] voiced palatal nasal (SAMPA: [J]); is a common sound in European languages as in: Spanish ñ; or French and Italian gn; or Catalan and Hungarian ny; or Occitan and Portuguese nh.

·[?] voiced velar nasal (SAMPA: [N]), as in sing.

·[?] voiced uvular nasal (SAMPA: [N\])

Oral consonants are produced when the soft palate is raised up and the air passage goes through the mouth cavity, and the access to the nasal cavity is blocked.following English consonants are oral [p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [g], [f], [v], [t], [d], [s], [z], [s], [z], [h], [c], [g], [w], [i], [r], [j].examined the main criteria we can use to classify consonants from an articulatory point of view, we can now briefly describe the consonant phonemes of English.. The Approximants

. The Glides. There are two sounds in English, [w] and [j], having vowel-like features as far as their articulation is concerned, but which differ from their vowel counterparts [u] and [i] respectively through their distribution, force of articulation and length. When we articulate a glide the articulatory organs start by producing a vowel-like sound, but then they immediately change their position to produce another sound. It is to the gliding that accompanies their articulation that these sounds owe their name. As we have seen earlier, precisely because of their ambiguous nature they are also called semivowels or semiconsonants. Unlike vowels, they cannot occur in syllable-final position, can never precede a consonant and are always followed by a genuine vocalic sound.. [w] is a labio-velar, rounded sound. At the beginning, its articulation is similar to that of the vowel [u], but then the speech organs shift to a different position to utter a different vocalic sound. The distribution of the sound includes syllable-initial position before almost any English vowel (e.g. win [w 4n], weed [wi:d], wet [wet], wag [w æg], work [w f:k], won [won],woo [wu:], wood [w ?d], walk, [w ]:k] wander [w ]nd c],) or a diphthong (e.g. way). Before [r], (e.g. write) the sound is no longer pronounced. [w] can also occur after a plosive (e.g. twin, queen) or a fricative consonant (e.g. swine). It can be rendered graphically either by the letter w (the most common case) (e.g. sweet) or by u (e.g. quite).. [j] is an unrounded palatal semivowel. The initial stage of its pronunciation is quite similar to that of the short vowel [w], but then the sound glides to a different vocalic value. Like [w], [j] cannot occur in final position (as a quite similar palatal sound very often does in Turkish), is never followed by a consonant and occurs in front of back, central and front vowels. (e.g. yes, young, youth). It can be preceded by a plosive (e.g. tune) or a fricative (e.g. fume). The sound may be spelt y (as in year) while in words spelt with u, ue, ui, ew, eu and eau read as the long vowel [u:] the palatal sound is often inserted. The insertion is obligatory if the preceding consonant is: an oral plosive (p, b, t, d, k, g), a nasal stop (m, n), a labio-dental fricative (f, v) or a glottal one (h). A word like beauty can only be read [bju:tw] and not [bu:tw]. Cf. also: pure, bureau, tulip, deuce, queue, argue, mule, neutral, furious, revue, huge. The palatal sound is not inserted after affricates or after [r] or [l] preceded by a consonant: chew, June, rude, clue. When [l] is not preceded by a consonant or when the sound preceding [u:] is an alveolar fricative [s, z] or a dental one, the usage varies: cf. suit [sju:t], but also [su:t]. In words like unite, unique, university, etc, where u forms the syllable alone the vowel is always preceded by the semivowel: [ju:na?t].

. The Liquids. These are approximant sounds, produced in the alveolar and postalveolar region and include several variants of the lateral [l] and of the rhotic [r].. The lateral [l]. The main variants of [l] are a so-called clear [l] and a dark [l]. The clear [l] is distributed in prevocalic positions. When this sound is articulated, the tip of the tongue touches the alveolar ridge and the air is released either unilaterally or on both sides of the active articulator. The front part of the tongue also raises towards the hard palate. Words like lake [le?k], look [luk], flute [flu:t], lurid [ljur?d] delight [d?la?t] illustrate the distribution of the consonant in syllable-initial position or after a plosive plot [pl]t], Blake [ble?k], clean [kli:n], glue [glu:] or a fricative slot [sl]t], fly [fla?] and in front of a vowel or the glide [j] The dark [?] is distributed in word-final position or before a consonant. As in the case o the clear [l] the tip of the tongue touches the alveolar ridge and the air is released laterally, but now it is the body of the tongue that raises against the soft palate, modifying the resonance of the sound and giving it a more stifled character. Words like kill [ki?], rule [ru:?], belfry [be?fr?], belt [be?t], silk [s??k] illustrate the distribution of the sound either at the end of the word (syllable) or before a consonant.phoneme is spelt either l or ll in words like link or call, for instance. In many words, however, before plosive sounds like [k] or [d] - cf. chalk, could; or before nasals like [m] or [n] - cf. calm, Lincoln; the labio-dental fricatives [f] and [v] - cf. calf, calves; the lateral sound is not pronounced. . The rhotic [r]. The class includes several variants which are pretty different both in rticulatory terms and in auditory effect. The RP [‹] is a frictionless continuant, articulated very much like a fricative, but friction does not accompany the production of the sound. The tip of the tongue slightly touches the back of the alveolar ridge, while the body of the tongue is low in the mouth. flapped is used by many speakers of English, especially when it occurs at the beginning of unstressed syllables. The tongue rapidly touches the alveolar ridge with a tap.rolled [r] is common in northern dialects and in Scotland. It is produced by a quick succession of flaps, the tongue repeatedly and rapidly touching the alveolar ridge and vibrating against it. This sound is not characteristic for RP. The letter r or double rr reproduces the sound graphically: right, barren In postvocalic word- or syllable-final position the sound is not pronounced in standard English - cf. car, party. If the word is, however, followed by a vowel, [r] is reinserted: the car is mine. The same insertion takes place when an affix is attached to a base ending in a (normally) silent [r]: hear [h?c] /hearing [h?cr?õ]; Moor [m?c] /Moorish [m?cr?]. This type of [r] is called linking r.. The English Stops

. The oral plosives. In terms of their place of articulation they are bilabial, alveolar and velar.. [p] is a voiceless, bilabial, fortis plosive. Its variants include an aspirated plosive if the consonant is followed by a stressed vowel and occurs in syllable-initial position. Being a bilabial stop, [p] is produced by completely blocking the airstream at the level of the lips and by suddenly releasing the air with an explosion. Except for the aspirated variant, the phoneme is pretty similar to its Turkish counterpart. It is distributed in initial, medial and final position: pane, appear, lip. It is spelt p: plane or pp5: opposite and only exceptionally gh in hiccough. The letter p is silent when followed by another obstruent or a nasal in word-initial position: psalm, pterodactyl, pneumatic.[b] is the voiced, lenis counterpart of [p]. Voicing and force of articulation are the features that contrast the two phonemes, [b] being like [p] a bilabial sound. It is distributed in all three basic positions; initial, medial and final: bet, above, cab. It is spelt b: about or bb:abbot. The letter is silent in final position after m: limb, crumb, dumb and in front of t in words of Latin origin where the sound has long been lost: debt, doubt, subtle. The variants of [b] include partially devoiced allophones in initial position: big, blow, bring and laterally or nasally released allophones when [b] is followed by the lateral l: bless or by a nasal consonant: ribbon. It is not audibly released in final position: rib.. [t] is a voiceless, apico-alveolar, fortis plosive. Like [p], it has an aspirated variant that occurs before stressed vowels when the phoneme is distributed in syllable-initial position: tube. If preceded by s, however, [t] is unaspirated: stain. Its distribution includes all basic positions: try, attain, pit. It is laterally or nasally released if followed by [l] or by a nasal consonant, repectively: little, written, utmost. The English phoneme is more retracted than its Turkish counterpart which is rather a dental sound. It is spelt with t: toe, with tt: cutter or with th: Thomas,Thames. . [d] is the voiced, lenis counterpart of [t], voicing and force of articulation differentiating between the two sounds that share the same place of articulation in the alveolar region. Both [t] and [d] can become dentalized in the vicinity of the dental fricatives, in words like eighth and breadth. The sound is distributed in initial, medial and final position: dime, addition, pad. It is partially devoiced in initial position: duke and devoiced in final position: road. It is laterally released if followed by [l]: riddle and nasally released if followed by [m] or [n]: admit, sudden.. It is spelt d: read or dd: adder.. [k] is a voiceless, dorso-velar, fortis, plosive sound, articulated with the dorsum of the tongue against the soft palate. Like the other voiceless plosives described above, it has an aspirated variant if the sound is distributed in syllable-initial position, in front of a stressed vowel: cat. [k] is distributed in initial, medial and final position: coat, accuse, sack. It can be followed by a nasal consonant and be consequently nasally released thicken or by the lateral liquid and be laterally released: fickle. In spelling, the sound can be represented by the letter c (e.g. comb) or by cc (e.g. accuse), by k (e.g. kill), by ck (e.g. pick), by ch (e.g. architect), by qu (e.g. queen). As in Turkish, the sequence [ks] can be rendered by the letter x (e.g. extreme). In words like muscle and knave the letters c an k are silent.[g] is the voiced, lenis pair of [k] and it has basically the same features as its Turkish counterpart. It is distributed in initial, medial and final position: game, begin, rag. Its allophones include partially devoiced variants in initial position: gain, devoiced variants in final position: dog, laterally released, when followed by [l]: giggle and nasally released when followed by [m]: dogmatic. In spelling, the consonant can be rendered by g: get by gg: begged, or by g followed by h, as in ghastly, by ua, ue or ui, as in guarantee, guess or linguist, respectively. The voiced counterpart of [ks], [gz] can also be rendered by x in words like example.. The glottal stop [g] is a glottal, voiceless, fortis sound produced in the glottal region by bringing the vocal cords together and then separating them, thus completely blocking and then suddenly releasing the airstream. It is a sound that has been compared with a slight cough. It appears in syllablefinal position especially when it separates two adjacent vowels that are not part of the same syllable (in a hiatus): geography or between a vowel and a syllable-final voiceless stop or affricate that it reinforces. In some accents (notably Cockney), it replaces voiceless plosives like [k] and [t] at the end of a syllable. E.g. sick guy [sI?gaI] or quite right [kwaI?raIt]. Acoustically, English voiced plosives can be distinguished from their voiceless counterparts by having a low frequency component determined by the feature voice. The release stages of the three classses of stops in terms of place of articulation: bilabial, alveolar and velar, respectively, differ as regards the noise burst they produce. Alveolar plosives display higher frequencies (3000-4000 cps) than the bilabial (around 360 cps) and velar ones (around 700 cps).

. The Nasal stops.. [m] is a bilabial, voiced, lenis, nasal stop. As in the case of all nasal sonorants, when we articulate this sound the velum is lowered, blocking the oral cavity and letting the air escape through the nose. There are no differences between the English sound and its Turkish counterpart. [m] is distributed in all basic positions: initial, medial and final: make, remote, dim. It can be spelt with m or mm: come, common. It should be said, however, that English does not accept a sequence of two nasal sounds in the same syllable, words like solemn and hymn differing from their Turkish counterparts as the last nasal sound is not pronounced. If an affix is added, nevertheless, that begins with a vowel, the second consonant is recovered. Compare solemn [s]lem] to solemnity [s]lemnwtw].. [n] is an alveolar, voiced, lenis, nasal stop. The place of articulation is similar to that of [t] and [d], but [n] is a nasal sound, so the air is released through the nose and not through the mouth. It is similar to its Turkish counterpart. It is distributed in all three basic positions - initial, medial and final: name, renown, can. It is spelt n or nn: dean, annual. The sound is elided in final position after [m], but recovered in derived words: damn, damnation. (See also solemn and solemnity above).. [õ] is a velar, voiced, lenis, nasal stop. It occurs in the vicinity of the velar oral plosives in words like link or wrong. It is to be noted that in present day English the velar oral plosive in the last word is no longer pronounced, but we can find the velar nasal in front of [g] in connected speech in sequences like I can get it. A similar sound can be found in Turkish, in words like banc?, rang?, but in our language it does not have a phonemic, contrastive value. As pointed out above, this phoneme has a limited distribution: it always precedes the voiceless velar plosive or occurs in syllable-final position in front of an elided [g].. The English Fricativesare, as we remember, sounds that are produced by narrowing the speech tract and letting the air out, a process which is accompanied by friction and in some cases by a hissing sound.

[f] is a labio-dental, voiceless, fortis consonant. It is produced by pressing the lower lip against the upper teeth and forcing the air out between them. The sound is similar to its Turkish counterpart.The sound can be spelt f - as in fine, fllare, fringe, feud, loaf, stifle, ff - as in effort, snuff, ph - as in physics, graph, or even gh - as in enough, tough. The word lieutenant [leftencnt] is a particular case.

[v] is the voiced, lenis pair of [f] with which it shares the place (labio- dental) and manner (fricative) of articulation. It is important to remember that the English sound is a labio-dental and not a bilabial fricative (as its Spanish counterpart, for instance). It has exactly the same characteristics as the Turkish sound. It is spelt with the letter v. (Exceptionally, by ph in, nephew and f in of). Certain English nouns voice their labio-dental final fricative when they pluralize displaying the alternance f/v: e.g. leaf / leaves, wife/wives. Derivational affixes can also voice the final consonant: life/liven.

[?] is an interdental, voiceless, fortis fricative. The phoneme does not have any distributional variants. It occurs in word-initial, medial and final position. It is produced with the tip of the tongue between the teeth, the air escaping through the passage in between. It is a sound difficult to pronounce for Turkish speakers who often mistake it for [s] or even [t]. The sound exists in other European languages too, such as Spanish or Greek, the symbol used in the IPA alphabet being in fact borrowed from the Greek alphabet. The sound is rendered graphically by h: e.g. thin, method, path. The sound often occurs in clusters difficult to pronounce: eighths [e?t?s], depths [dep?s], lengths [leõ?s].

[?] is the voiced pair of [?] being an interdental, voiced, lenis fricative. In initial position it is only distributed in grammatical words such as demonstratives: this, that, these, those, there; articles: the; adverbs: thus. It occurs freely in medial position: brother, bother, rather, heathen. In final position it often represents the voicing of [?] in plurals like mouths [mau.z], wreaths [ri:.z] which may prove difficult to pronounce, or in derived words like bath [ba: ?] (noun)/bathe [be?.] (verb) or breath [bre?] (n.)/ breathe [bri:.] (v.). The sound is always spelt th, like its voiceless counterpart. [s] is an alveolar, voiceless, fortis fricative, produced with the blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, a sound quite similar to its Turkish counterpart. It is a hissing sound distributed in all major positions: at the beginning, within and at the end of a word. It is in fact the only obstruent sound in English that can occur in front of another obstruent, provided the latter is voiceless: e.g. spot, stop, skin. [s] is the plural allomorph for nouns ending in a voiceless consonant as well as the allomorph of the 3rd person singular present indicative morpheme. It is spelt s, ss or c in front of e, i or y: e.g. sour, say, hiss, assign, ceiling, cellar, cigarette, precise, cypress, bicycle. Sometimes the spelling can be sce, sci or scy (e.g. science, scent, scene, scythe). s is silent in words like corps, island, viscount.

[z] is the voiced, lenis, alveolar fricative that corresponds to the voiceless [s]. It is quite similar to its Turkish counterpart, but it plays a more important role in English as it is one of the main allomorphs of the plural morpheme (distributed after a voiced consonant or a vowel). Like its voiceless counterpart, [z] is a hissing sound, produced with a high-pitched friction.when these sounds are articulated the air is expelled through a narrow groove along the middle of the blade they are also called grooved fricatives. Together with the more retracted, alveo-palatal fricatives and with the affricate sounds they are called sibilants. The sound is spelt [z] It is often spelt s when the sound does not occur in initial positon e.g. nose, easy, desire), and, exceptionally, tz in tzar. Similarly, when it marks the plural of nouns ending in a voiced sound (e.g. boys, balls, ribs) or when it is the voiced allomorph of the 3rd person singular present indicative of verbs ending in a voiced sound (e.g. plays, calls, adds) the spelling is s. Exceptionally, the sound can be spelt double ss in words like dissolve, possess. [?] is an alveopalatal, voiceless, fortis fricative consonant. The uttering f this sound should not raise any particular problems for Turkishs as its articulatory features are similar to those of its counterpart in Turkish. The blade of the tongue is raised against the region behind the alveolar ridge and the air is forced out through a groove a little wider than in the case of [s], its more fronted counterpart. [] is distributed in all three main positions in the word. It is often spelt sh in words like shoe, cushion or push. It can also be spelt s (e.g. sure, sugar) or ss (e.g. pressure, mission) or ci (ancient, delicious), sci (conscious) ce (ocean), si (pension, mansion), ti (tuition, retribution). It is a variant of [sj] in words like issue, tissue. In words oforigin the sound is spelt ch: champagne, charade, charge, moustache, attache. The same spelling is used in proper names like Charlotte, Chicago, Chicoutimi, Michigan.

[d?] is the voiced counterpart of [t?]. It is an alveopalatal, voiced, lenis fricativeand is pronounced very much like the corresponding sound in Turkish. It is not, however, a very common sound in English as it occurs mainly in loan (particularly French) words. It is never distributed in initial position, but it can occur in medial (pleasure, treasure, measure) or final position (garage, prestige). It can be spelt either s when followed by u (visual) or i (decision), or z if followed by u (seizure) or ge (massage, espionage). In words like casual the alternative pronunciation [zj] is possible, while in other cases the fricative is replaced by the affricate [d] (e.g. garage).

[h] is a glottal fricative in English, a voiceless, fortis sound produced by letting the air pass freely through the mouth during expiration. Thus, its place of articulation in the glottal region is more retracted than in the case of the Turkish sound which is rather a velar sound, closer to the variant occurring in Scottish English: loch [lox]. A palatalized version is used when the sound is followed by a palatal: humane [hjume?n]. Unlike in most Romance languages h freely occurs in initial position in English: home, hiss, hut Dropping the hs is even considered a sign of lack of education. In a small number of words the sound is, however, dropped even in standard English in both in initial and medial position: hour, heir, honour, honest, vehicle, annihilate. It is also common (even for educated people to drop the initial h in unstressed (weak) forms of the personal pronouns (he, him) possessives (his, her) or the verb have h is also silent in final position in the interjection ah or in words like shah. The conservative spelling of English has preserved the letter h after r in words of Greek origin where no h sound or aspiration is heard nowadays (rhapsody, rhetoric, rheumatism, rhinal, rhinoceros, rhombus, rhyme, rhythm).. The English Affricatesaffricate phonemes of English are [t?] and [d?]. They differ from their Turkish counterparts as they can be distributed in all three basic positions (including the word-final one) and can be followed by any vowel. Therefore, they are far less palatalized than the corresponding Turkish sounds that must be followed by either e or i. Even when they are followed by i and e the English affricates differ considerably from the corresponding sounds in Turkish. In order to realize the difference between the English sounds and their Turkish counterparts it is enough to compare the English word chin to the Turkish cin or the English gem to the Turkish gem.

[t?] is a voiceless, fortis, alveo-palatal sound produced with the blade of the tongue raised against the region just behind the alveolar ridge. As in the case of any affricate sound, its articulation starts like that of a plosive - in our case [t] - by completely blocking the outgoing airstream and then continues by a gradual release of the air, as for a fricative []. The very symbol used in thealphabet for the notation of the sound suggests the mixed nature of the affricate. We should make a difference, however, between the affricate proper (pitch [p?t] and the sequence of the plosive and the fricative [t] + [] (courtship [k]:t?p], right shoe [ra?tu:]). The phoneme is represented graphically by ch: (charm, chinchilla, rich) or tch (kitchen, bitch) or by t followed by u (creature, culture) when the plosive is palatalized. In words like habitual, sanctuary the pronunciation with an affricate is a variant of [t?]. Exceptionally, we can have ce or cz as graphic representations of the sound in (violon) cello or Czech.

[d?] is the voiced counterpart of [t?], being an alveo-palatal, voiced, lenis, affricate consonant. It can be rendered graphically by j in either initial or medial position in words like justice, John, rejoice, pyjamas, by ge in all basic positions: gesture, agent, sage, by gi in initial and medial position: giraffe, rigid; and gy in initial position: gymnastics. In certain words it can be spelt d followed by u: gradual, individual, procedure/al. In all these cases, however, there is an alternative pronunciation [d?]. In a number of proper names or common nouns originating in proper names ch is read [d?]: Norwich, Greenwich, S/sandwich. Another spelling can be dg in words like ridge or edge.


.2 Classification of Turkish consonant system

, the westernmost of the Turkic languages, belongs to the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family. It is the largest of the Turkic languages in terms of number of speakers. There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between Turkish and other Oghuz languages such as Azerbaijani, Turkmen, and Qashqai. Turkey occupies a central geographical meeting point between Asia and Europe. Anatolia, the western region of Asian Turkey, is one of the oldest inhabited areas of the world. It is thought that the first human inhabitants appeared in Anatolia as far back as 7,500 BC. The Ottoman Empire, established by the Oghuz Turks of western Anatolia and ruled by the Osmanli dynasty, ruled the areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea from 1281 to 1922. It was defeated by the Allies during World War I, and its territories were colonized by the victors. After the Turkish War of Independence (1918-1923), the Republic of Turkey was founded from the remnants of the fallen empire by Mustafa Kemal, who was later given the name of Atatürk 'Father of the Turks'. He was responsible for a wide range of reforms that helped to modernize Turkey, including far-reaching language reforms that concentrated on replacing the Arabic script with the Roman one, and purging the language of Arabic and Persian words. Turkish is the official language of Turkey, where it is spoken by 46.3 million people. It is also the official language of Cyprus along with Greek. The rest of the Turkish speakers live in 35 different countries in Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia, and the Americas (Ethnologue). Most of these countries were part of the territory governed by the Ottoman Empire. The worldwide population of speakers of Turkish is estimated at around 51 million (Ethnologue). Language and language reform are hot political issues in Turkey with an ongoing battle between supporters of a traditional lexicon and those who support a modern, turkified one with a large number of borrowings from western European languages. Religious publications have not been as deeply affected by language reform as secular literature. They continue to use a form of Turkish that relies on Arabic and Persian vocabulary and syntax. The resurgence of Islam in the 1990s has led to the reintroduction of many Islamic words into modern spoken Turkish. Modern standard Turkish is based on the Istanbul dialect. Turkish has 20 consonant phonemes. There are no consonant clusters at the beginning of words. Stops, fricatives, and affricates are devoiced in final position, e.g., kitap 'book' (in the nominative case), kitab'book' (in the accusative case).can divide Turkish consonants into two categories:

. Voiceless consonants: ç, f, h, k, p, s, ю, t

. Voiced consonants: all the othersvariable consonants are: t/d, p/b, ç/c.change 1: concerns the initial consonant of newly added suffixes beginning in t/d or ç/c:of word is voiceless => t or çof word is a vowel => d or cof word is voiced => d or c: üt (milk) + çü/cü => sütçü (milkman); the suffix begins in ç because süt has a voiceless end consonant.(coffee) + çi/ci => kahveci (coffee house keeper); the suffix begins in c because kahve ends by a vowel.(house) + te/de => evde (in the house); the suffix begins in d because ev has a voiced end consonant.change 2: final consonant of preceding word (or suffix) changes when a new suffix is added:immediately followed by a suffixed vowel, ç->c; t->d; p->bimmediately followed by a suffixed consonant, c->ç; d->t; b->p:рaç (tree) ends with a з. If we add the -ta suffix we'll get aрaçta (in the tree). If we add the -э suffix we'll get aрacэ.


Table 3. Consonant phonemes of Standard Turkish

BilabialLabiodentalDentalAlveolarPostalveolarPalatalVelarGlottalPlosivespbtdcjk?NasalsmnFricativesfvsz???hAffricates??TaprApproximantjLateral approximantsllsh in shops in measureçsh in sheen c - jno equivalents in Englishno equivalent in Englishtch in cheapdj in jeepll in bull

G - g - Always a hard 'g' as in 'got'. Never soft.

? - ? - Not exactly a consonant, it rather distinguishes properties of the vowel it follows. When following a member of the 'dark' vowels (a, o, u, ?) it lengthens the vowel, causing it to be held for two beats instead of one. This is not the same as stress, but rather like the difference between 'saw off' and 'soft': the former 'aw' sound is held for twice the time of the latter. When following a member of the 'light' vowels (e, i, ö, ü) it becomes a gliding 'i' sound. The phoneme / ? / usually referred to as yumu?ak g ("soft g"), ? in Turkish orthography, actually represents a rather weak front-velar or palatal approximant between front vowels. It never occurs at the beginning of a word, but always follows a vowel. When word-final or preceding another consonant, it lengthens the preceding vowel.[21]sounds [c], [?] and [l] are in complementary distribution with [k], [g] and [?], the former occurring with front vowels and the latter with back vowels. These allophones are not distinguished in the orthography, in which both series are written <k>, <g> and <l>. When a vowel is added to nouns ending with postvocalic <k>, the <k> becomes <?> by consonant alternation.

Turkish orthography is highly phonetic and a word's pronunciation is always completely identified by its spelling. The following table presents the Turkish letters, the sounds they correspond to in International Phonetic Alphabet and how these can be approximated more or less by an English speaker.earliest known Turkish alphabet is the Orkhon script. In general, Turkic languages have been written in a number of different alphabets including Cyrillic, Arabic, Greek, Armenian, Latin and some other Asiatic writing systems.current 29-letter Turkish alphabet, used for the Turkish language, was established by the Law on the Adoption and Implementation of the Turkish Alphabet, numbered 1353,[1] in Turkey on November 1, 1928, as a vital step in the cultural part of Atatürk's Reforms.[2] Replacing the earlier Ottoman Turkish script, the script was created as an extended version of the Latin alphabet at the initiative of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.


Table 4.

LetterIPAEnglish approximationLetterIPAEnglish approximationBbbAs b in batMmmAs m in manCcd?As j in jobNnnAs n in notÇçt?As ch in chatPppAs p in putDddAs d in dogRr<file:///C:\wiki\Alveolar_tap>As r in ratFffAs f in farSssAs s in sandGggAs g in gap??<file:///C:\wiki\Voiceless_postalveolar_fricative>As sh in she??:Soft, lengthens preceding vowelTttAs t in topHhhAs h in hotVvvAs v in valveJj?As g in montageZzzAs z in zipKkkAs c in catLllAs l in let

Distinctive features

Note that dotted and dotless I are separate letters, each with its own uppercase and lowercase form. I is the capital form of ?, and ? is the capital form of i. (In the original law establishing the alphabet, the dotted ? came before the undotted I; now their places are reversed [Yaz?m K?lavuzu].) The letter J, however, uses a tittle in the same way English does, with a dotted lowercase version, and a dotless uppercase version.Optional circumflex accents can be used with "â", "î" and "û" to disambiguate words with different meanings but otherwise the same spelling, or to indicate palatalization of a preceding consonant (for example, while "kar" /kar/ means "snow", "kâr" /car/ means "profit"), or long vowels in loanwords, particularly from Arabic. These are seen as variants of "a", "i", and "u" and are becoming quite rare in modern usage.

Status of Q, W, X

The Turkish alphabet has no Q, W or X. Instead, these are transliterated into Turkish as K, V, and KS, respectively. The 1928 Law 1353 enforced usage of only the Turkish letters on official documents like birth certificates, marriage documents, and land registers;[1] the 1982 Constitution explicitly retains this law.[5] In practice, the requirement of using the Turkish alphabet in state registers has made it impossible to register some Kurdish names exactly as they are rendered in Kurdish orthography, which includes q, w, and x. The families can give their children Kurdish names, but these names cannot include these letters and are required to use the aforementioned transliterations. Many Kurds have applied to the courts seeking to change their names to specifically include the letters q, w, and x.[6] A similar situation exists in Europe where many people with Turkish names reside.[7] Many Turkish names include ?, ü, ?, ?, ö, ç, and ?, some of which are unavailable in local official alphabets, depending on the country of residence.

In Turkish the spelling of the words is changed when the pronunciation changes. Generally this does not happen in English, when we change the pronunciation we do not change the spelling. In fact we often change the spelling when the pronunciation is the same so that we can recognize the meaning. Several more phenomena need to be understood from the beginning. They are complications, but are almost always regular. One is voicing assimilation: the voiced stop d in a suffix becomes voiceless t immediately after a voiceless consonant p t k ç f s ? h. So kitap book gives kitapta in the book and kitapt?r it is a book, and çocuk child gives çocuktan from the child, and genç young gives gençtir s/he is young. second is related to this. As with many languages, you can't get voiced stops b d g c at the end of a word: they become voiceless p t k ç (kitap is from Arabic kitâb). But when a vowel suffix is added, they change to the voiced forms. So with the genitive case ending, we get kitab?n of the book and gencin of the young one. With k the change is not to its ordinary voiced equivalent g but the soft (and now silent) ?, as in çocu?un of the child. , Turkish does not like two vowels to come together, so when a vowel-initial suffix is attached to a vowel-final word, a consonant is interposed. Which one depends on the ending: the genitive in ~ ?n ~ ün ~ un takes -n-, as in kuyunun of the well, kedinin of the cat. The dative e ~ a and the accusative i ~ ? ~ ü ~ u take -y-, as in kediye to the cat. The third person possessive is the same as the accusative after a consonant, but has the interposed consonant -s- after a vowel: yolu gördüm I saw the village, yolu her/his/its village, but kuyuyu gördüm I saw the well, kuyusu her/his/its well. other suffixes the form after a vowel is shorter than that after a consonant: such as the possessive, -m in kuyum my well and with an extra vowel in çocu?um my child.

A number of words can easily show this-meet vs meat, feet vs feat, right vs write, main vs mane, sea vs see, and many more.example, if English were written phonetically, the word does should be spelt duz. Turkish however being a phonetically written language will make these changes in spelling.

If the word ends in an hard consonant ( ç f h k p s ? t ) then the following rules apply: k < ? t < d ç < c p < b f < v. Adding a suffix beginning with a vowel to a word changes the last letter of the word itself to its soft version as above Adding a suffix beginning with a consonant changes the suffix itself to its hard version. -de < -te -den < -ten and Past Tense -di < -ti

The reason for the changes in pronunciation are only for ease of speaking and are only concerned with consonants which have voiced or "hard" and unvoiced or "soft" equivalents. The word for letter is mektup, but my letter is mektubum, the terminal -p has changed to -b - see equivalent chart below. This is simply because it is easier to pronounce and in Turkish the spelling must reflect this change for the rules of phonetics to operate. and Soft Letter Equivalents

p equivalent to bf equivalent to v

с equivalent to сs no equivalent -equivalent to ds no equivalent -

к equivalent to gh no equivalent -last three - s, 5, h - do not have a unvoiced form, as they are not voiced consonants, but they do affect the added suffix as they are considered as hard consonants:- delicious - becomes - nefistir - it is (certainly) delicious - not nefisdir. sabah - morning - becomes - sabahtan - from morning - not sabahdan gunes - sun - becomes - gunesten - from the sun - not gunesden.-k terminates a word it nearly always changes to soft -g when suffixes beginning in a vowel are affixed to that word. The exceptions where no change is made are very few and will not be discussed here.ending in -K change to -G- when a vowel is addedConsonant Mutation Examples

kopek - dog kopegim - my dog- leg bacagin - your leg- ankle topugu - his ankle- wrist bilegimiz - our wristsözluk - spectacles gözlugunuz - your spectacles

durak - bus stopduraga - to the bus stop- will seegorecegim -1 shall see

yaptik - we did yaptigimiz - that which we did- glass (tumbler)bardagi - his glassconsonant change from -k to soft -g- when adding suffixes is the most widespread mainly because so many Turkish words end in a terminal -kthe word ends in -nk. Then the terminal -k changes directly to a hard -g as it is totally impossible to utter the letter cluster -ng plus an added vowel. Examples where terminal -nk changes to -ng when adding a vowel

denk - bale, equation becomesdengim - my bale

ahenk - harmony, accordbecomesahengi - its harmony

kepenk - shutterbecomeskepenginiz - your shutter

renk - color becomesrengimiz - our colourof the other consonants which change to their soft form in similar fashion are as follows:

-p changes to -b in front of suffixed vowels

c changes to -c in front of suffixed vowels

t changes to -d in front of suffixed vowelsExamples of Consonant Change Further Consonant Mutation Examples- book kitabin - your book- advice ogudiim - my advice

tat - tastetadi - its taste

ilac-medicine ilaci - his medicine- tree agacin - the tree'sgeneral rule is that single syllable words do not soften their final hard consonants in line with the general rule, hence:Hard Roots - Single Syllable Words

ак - whiteaki - the white/his white- horseati - the horse/his horse- additioneki - the addition/its addition- meateti - the meat/his, her, its meat- migrationgocu - the migration- ropeipi - rope

kac? - how many? kacinci? - which one?

kok - rootkokii - the root/its root- arrowoku - the arrow/his arrow- grassotu - the grass/its grass- hairsagi - the hair/his, her hair- handlesapi - the handle/its handle- faultsucu - the fault/his,her, its fault- milksutij - the milk/his, her its milk- threeiicu - the three/trioof course there are some exceptions to this rule where a single syllable word does take on its soft form when adding a vowel suffix:Soft Roots - Single Syllable Words

but - thigh budu - the thigh/his,her,its thigh- bottom/base dibi - the bottom/the base/its bottom

сок - a tot/much/very cogu - the lot/his, her, its lot

gok - skygogii - the sky/its sky

кар - vessel kabi - the vessel/his vessel

kurt - worm/wolfkurdu - the worm, the wolf/his wolf

uc - point/tip/enducu - the point/his, her, its point

yurt - tent yurdu - the tent, the villageNotes about Consonants in Turkishcan not end with the soft consonants - b, c, d, gmust end in the equivalent hard forms p, c, t, к in order to finish the pronunciation without continuity thus helping the listener to determine word breaks in conversation.has changed the English import of the word - Pub (public house) into a Turkish version of the word - Pup - which ends in the eqivalent hard consonant-p. So -Sahil Pup - has been written for- Sahil Pub (Beach Pub).example - kebab - is wrong - kebap- is correct- (Although the original form of the word - kebap-is kebab - in Arabic.)the name - Mehmed - is wrong - Mehmet - is correct. there are a few words which do end in soft consonants such as - ad, od, sac - simply to make their meaning recognizable from similar word that have a hard consonant at the end. This little group of words is an exception to the general rule that words always end in a Hard Consonant.:(isim) - first name (noun) and at (binek hayvam) - horse (riding animal)(ate§) - fire and ot (bitki) - grass (plant)(yassi demir) - sheet iron and sac (kil) - hair (bristle)

Among Turkish consonants, the so-called soft G (?) and R cause the greatest difficulty in utterance. The soft G has been the centre of debates among linguists as to whether it can be counted as a separate letter. For example, Lewis comments on the Turkish orthography stating that ? has no sound at all between certain vowels or may have the sound of 'y' between certain vowels, and after some vowels before a following consonant., it would be wrong to say that ? has no sound at all between certain vowels, as this letter has a specific function each time it is used. Lewis states that ? is a concession to the traditional spelling of Turkish in the Arabo-Persian alphabet, G and GH. Medial or final GH becomes ?.... This ? whether in borrowings or in native words, though audible as a 'Northumbrian burr' of varying intensity in dialect, serves in standard Turkish to lengthen the preceding vowel, a following vowel being swallowed up.goes on to say that between O and A, or O and U, it may be heard as a weak 'v' or 'w' and adds that ? in conjunction with front vowels is heard as a weak 'y'. While all these statements do have a grain of truth in them, the letter ? does more than serve to lengthen the preceding vowel. The following list of examples of words with ? aims to clarify the function of ? in each case:

5

Word without ?Word with ?How g% changes sound of wordar? /ar?/ (bee)a?r? (pain)/a:hrh?/ - A lengthened, R aspirated, while upper and lower lip move toward one another.erik /er?k/ (plum)e?ri (crooked, bent)/ejr?/ ? heard like weak Y. e?e (file - kind of tool)First E aspirated, thus /ehe/.?l?man /?l?man/ (mild)??r?p (kind of fishing net)/?:r?p/: first ? is more voiced followed by ?.il /?l/ (city)i?ne (needle)/i:hne/ - i is lengthened and aspirated. o?lak (ram)/o:lak/ - O lengthened as lower lip moves forward. o?ul (son)/o:h?l/ - O lengthened and aspirated as lower lip moves forward.öksüz /?ksyz/(orphan)ö?retmen (teacher)/?:retmen/ Ö lengthened and R after ? more voiced.un /?n/ (flour)u?ultu (humming noise)/u:uhlt?/ - second U lengthened and a kind of following aspiration. u?ra? (a struggle)/u:hra?/ - U lengthened, lips rounded.ün /yn/ (fame)zü?ürt (spendthrift)/zyyhrt/ second Ü with following aspiration.but not least, the consonant R can also cause problems for learners of Turkish. In initial position the letter R has the sound /r/, in medial position it produces a rolling sound. When R is in final position, foreign learners hear it as /?/. It is, however, not a /?/ sound but an R that produces a heavy aspiration or even a whisper - more like a fricative or even a 'laryngeal'.


1.3 Summary


All sounds are devided into three major categories: vowels, consonants and glides. A consonant is a speech sound while pronouncing which the organs of speech form a restricted obstruction or no obstruction to the airflow.consonants are articulated with greater constriction, usually creating more accoustic noise han vowels.the English language there are 24 consonants and they are classified according to 4 principles.

I. According to the type of obstruction and the manner of noise production.

II. According to the active organ of speech and the place of obstruction.

III. According to the work of the vocal cords and the force of articulation.

IV. According to the position of the soft palate.

They are usually classified by the manner of articulation, place of articulation and voicing.may be voiced and voiceless, and oral or nasal. They are produced at various places of articulation: labial, dental, alveolar, alvelarpalatal, palatal, velar, and glottal. At the place of articulation, the airstream is modified by different manners of articulation and the resulting sounds are plosives, fricatives, median, lateral or affricates.has 20 consonant phonemes. There are no consonant clusters at the beginning of words. Stops, fricatives, and affricates are devoiced in final position, e.g., kitap 'book' (in the nominative case), kitab'book' (in the accusative case).may be voiced and voiceless, and oral or nasal. They are produced at various places of articulation: labial, labiodental, alveolar, postalveolar, palatal, velar, and glottal. At the place of articulation, the airstream is modified by different manners of articulation and the resulting sounds are fricatives, tap, lateral approximant, semivowel or affricates.

english turkish consonant language


Chapter 2. General similarities and differences of the consonant sounds in English and Turkish

are made with air stream that meets an obstruction in the mouth or nasal cavities. That is why in the production of consonant sounds there is a certain degree of noise.

Consonants are the bones of a word and give it its basic shape. English accents differ mainly in vowels, the consonants are more or less the same wherever English is spoken. So if your vowels axe not perfect you may still be understood by the listener, but. If the consonants are imperfect there may be some misunderstanding.sentence "W-l y- -nv-t- m-t- th- p-t-?" "Will you invite me to the party?" is easy for understanding even if all the vowel letters would be left out. But if we leave all the consonant letters out ; "-i -ou i--i-e -e -o --e -a--y" it is impossible to make any sense out of it. Thus we see that there are good reasons for beginning the course of pronunciation with consonants.would like to find similarities and differences between English and Turkish consonant systems.

) First we would like to examine some similarities between English and Turkish consonant sounds.

[b] is a lenis bilabial stop in English. It is fully voiced in positions between voiced sounds, as in labour, symbol, rub out, while in initial and final positions it is partially or completely devoiced, as in big, blow, rib, ebb. Note mute <b> in limb, thumb, comb, etc.,-and debt, subtle, doubt.

[b] is a plosive labial stop in Turkish. It is fully voiced in positions between voiced sounds, as in baba father, beraber together, while in initial and final positions it is partially or completely devoiced, as in bin a thousand, bir the number one. There is no mute <b> in Turkish.

Stops are bilabial [p, b], produced with both lips pressed together; forelingual, apical alveolar [t, d], produced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth ridge; backlingual, velar [k, g] produced with the back part of the tongue against the soft palate.

[p, t, k] are strong or fortis as they are pronounced with more muscular energy and a stronger breath effort than [b, d, g] which are weak or lenis.

[b, d, g] may be fully voiced in word initial position before a vowel as in bag, dog, got, gelmek to come, bati west and durak bus stop or in intervocalic positions as in rubber, leader, eager. In these cases the vocal cords are drawn together and vibrate.word final position they are partly devoiced: [b. d, g] as in rob [rob], bed [bed], log. [p, t, k] are voiceless as the vocal cords are kept apart and do not vibrate.

[p, b] occur in word initial, word medial and word final positions, [p] spelt "p" as in pin, pane, capable, lip, para money, kapi door, [b] spelt "b, bb" as in big, rubber, sob, tabii naturally, ba? head.

[p, b] are occlusive, plosive, bilabial; [p] is strong and voiceless, [b] is weak and voiced, in final position it is partly devoiced.. 1. The lips are firmly kept together.

2.The soft palate is raised and the air coming into the mouth stops for some time and then breaks the obstruction with a slight explosion.

  1. The vocal cords do not vibrate when [p] is produced. For [b] they are tense kept together and vibrate when [b] occurs before vowels or in intervocalic positions, eg begin, rubber, bayan a lady.
  2. The breath effort is very strong for [p], for [b] it is weak.

Recommendation. Press your lips together and push the air through the mouth breaking the obstruction made by the lips.

[t?] <ch tch t> is a fortis, voiceless, palato-alveolar affricate in English., as in cheese, watch, nature, righteous, question.

[?] is a fortis, voiceless, alveolar fricative in Turkish, as in çabuk quick, fast.

[d] is a lenis apical stop in English. It is fully voiced between voiced sounds, as in leader, London, endways, while in initial and final positions it is partially or completely devoiced, as in do, dry, bid, rubbed. It is most often alveolar, but may be dental before a dental fricative, as in width.

[d] is a plosive alveolar stop. It is also fully voiced between voiced sounds in Turkish like in English as in kedi cat, ada island, merhaba hello. While in initial and final positions it is partially or completely devoiced, as in od fire.

[f] is <f ff ph gh> is a fortis, voiceless, labio-dental fricative, as in fork, off, physics, enough.

[f] is a fortis, voiceless, labial fricative as in faiz interest (resulting from finance), fakat but, fuzla too much, etc. It sounds same as in English.

[f, v] are constrictive fricative, labio-dental; [f] is strong and voiceless; [v] is weak and voiced, in the final position it is partly devoiced. [f, v] are labio-dental, produced with the lower lip against the edge of the upper teeth;. 1. The lower lip is very close to the edge of the upper front teeth, thus forming an incomplete obstruction. When the air goes through the narrowing it causes slight friction.

. For [f] the vocal cords do not vibrate; there may be some vibration accompanying [v] when it occurs in word initial positions as in vast or between vowels as in never, cover, over.

. For [f] the air force is very strong.

Recommendation

. Put the lower lip close to the edge of the upper front teeth and blow breath between them. For [f] the friction should be strong but not very noisy; for [v] it should be weak.

. Keep the upper lip out of the way.

[k] <k с сk cc qu [kw] ch> is a fortis, voiceless, dorsal stop, as in kind, cake, clock, accord, conquer, stomach, chemist. The graphs <c cc> represent [k] before <a о u>. [k] is aspirated when syllable-initial, as in come, incur, according, cry, quick, and non-aspirated after /s/, as in skin.

[k] is a velar, voiceless, plosive stop as in ka??t paper, playing card, kalabal?k crowd, crowded, karar decision. [k] is aspirated at the beginning of the word as in karde? brother, sister, family member.

[l] <l ll> is an alveolar lateral sonorant, as in let, light, yellow, fill, apple.

[l] is an alveolar lateral sonorant, as in lazim necessary, lisan language. The pronunciation is the same as in English.

[1] occurs in all word positions, spelt "1, 11", eq like, glad, tall, lisan language.

[1] is constrictive, lateral, forelingual, apical, alveolar.. 1. The tip of the tongue is in firm contact with the alveolar ridge.

. The soft palate is raised and the air goes freely to the mouth.

3. The sides of the tongue are lowered and the air can pass between them and the palate.

4. The vocal cords are brought together and vibrate. Recommendations. 1. Put the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge feeling a firm contact with it.

2. Push the air through the mouth.

[m] <m mm> is a bilabial nasal sonorant, as in me, summer, seem, comb, autumn; note that <m> may precede mute <b n>.

[m] is a labial nasal sonorant, as in mahkeme court, mahvetmek to destroy, mavi blue, the color. [m] occurs in all word positions, spelt "m, mm, mb, mn", eg mean, summer, seam, comb, autumn

[m] is occlusive. nasal, bilabial.. 1. The lips are firmly kept together.

2.The soft palate is lowered and the air goes through the nose.

.The vocal cords vibrate. Recommendation. Press your lips together and push the air through the nose.

[n] <n nn> is an alveolar nasal sonorant, as in neat, knit, gnaw, snow, dinner, gone, open; note that <n> may be preceded by mute<kg>.

[n] is an alveolar nasal sonorant, as in nazil how, namaz prayer, natice result. [n] is occlusive nasal, forelingual, apical, alveolar. .

. The tip of the tongue is pressed against the alveolar ridge.

. The soft palate is lowered and the air escapes through the nose. 3. The vocal cords vibrate. . Put the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge and push the air through the nose.

[p] <p pp> is a relatively strong, or fortis, voiceless bilabial stop. It is usually accompanied by aspiration when initial a stressed syllable,' as in pin, appear, impatient, play. Initially in an unstressed syllable and finally aspiration is relatively weak, as in polite, upper, lip. When [s] precedes [p] initially in a syllable, there is practically no aspiration, as in spin.

[p] <p pp> is a fortis, voiceless labial, plosive, relatively strong stop in Turkish. It is usually accompanied by aspiration when initial stressed syllable,' as in pahal? expensive. Initially in an unstressed syllable and finally aspiration is relatively weak, as in parmak, finger, patlak, a burst, a puncture.

[r] <r rr> is a post-alveolar lateral sonorant, as in red, write, tree, mirror, very.

[r] is a alveolar, flap, lateral sonorant, as in rahat peace and quiet, reddetmek to refuse, to reject, resim picture.

[r] is constrictive, medial, forelingual, cacuminal, post-alveolar.. 1. The tip of the tongue is held in a position near to but not touching the back of the alveolar ridge, the front part of the tongue is low and the back is rather high so that the tongue has a curved shape (cacuminal articulation).

  1. The position of the lips is determined by that of the following vowel.

3.The soft palate is raised and the air flows quietly between the tip of the tongue, and the palate.

4. The vocal cords vibrate. 1. Put the tip of the tongue against the back of the alveolar ridge without touching it. If you touch the alveolar ridge with the tip of the tongue there will be a firm contact between them and the resulting sound is [1] but not [r]. Remember that [r] is a purely gliding sound with no sudden change, e.g. light - right, low - row, lock - rock.

2. Keep the lips in the position for the following vowel, eg reach (spread lips), root (rounded lips).

. Push the air through the mouth so that you could hear a smooth glide.

[s] <s ss с sc x [ks]> is a fortis, voiceless, alveolar fricative, as in so, pass, nice, science, axe.

[s] is a fortis, voiceless, alveolar fricative, as in saat clock, sadece only, sari yellow.

[t] <t tt d> is a fortis, voiceless, apical stop, as in take, Thames, Tliomas; it is spelt <d> in the inflection -ed after fortis consonants other than [t], e.g. jumped, looked. It is aspirated when initial in a stressed syllable, as in take, attend, obtain, try, and nonaspirated after [s], as in stone. The place of articulation is most often alveolar but it may be dental when a dental fricative follows, as in at this. In RP and most other accents the place of articulation is postalveolar when /r/ follows, as in true.

[t] is a fortis, voiceless, alveolar, plosive stop, as in tahmin an estimate, guess tahmin etmek, to guess takdim a presentation. It is aspirated when initial in a stressed syllable, as in tehdit threat, tehdit etmek, to threaten, to menace tehlike danger.

[t, d] occur in word initial, word medial and word final positions

[t] - spelt "t, tt, th, ed", eg take, attend, Thomas, jumped, put, takip a following.

[d] - spelt "d, dd", eg dog, date, middle, leader, mad, raised, ada island.

[t, d] are occlusive, plosive, forelingual, apical, alveolar; [t] is strong and voiceless, [d] is weak and voiced, in final position it is partly devoiced.

[k, g] occur in word initial, word medial and word final positions, [k] - spelt "k; c; cc + a, o, u; qu; ch", eg kite, card, accord, conquer, stomach, kadar as…as, kara black; [g] - spelt "g; gg; gh; gu", eg garden, giggle, ghost, guard, gitmek to go.. 1. The complete obstruction is made by the tip of the tongue firmly pressed against the middle of the alveolar ridge.

2.The soft palate is raised and the air coming into the mouth is trapped for a short time. Then it breaks the obstruction with a slight explosion.

3.The vocal cords do not vibrate when [t] is formed. For [d] they are drawn together and vibrate when it occurs before vowels or in intervocalic positions, eg done, ladder, tedavi medical treatment.

4. The breath effort for [t] is very strong, for [d] it is weak.

Recommendations.

1.Raise the back of the tongue to the soft palate so that you can feel a firm contact of them. Push the air from the lungs breaking the obstruction with a slight popping noise.

2.Make the sound [k] strong and aspirated, eg cool, calm.

The Turkish consonants [k, g] are produced in a similar way, but the breath effort for the Turkish [к] is not so strong as for the English [k] which is aspirated. In word final position only [k] is heard, eg barmak a finger, while the English [g] in final positions is partially devoiced, dog, dialogue.

[v] <v f ph> is a lenis labio-dental fricative, as in voice, of, nephew. It is fully voiced in medial positions between voiced sounds, as in ever, nephew, silver, and partially or completely devoiced initially and finally, as in voice, leave, of.

[v] is a lenis alveolar fricative, as in vaat promise, veri data.. It is fully voiced in medial positions between voiced sounds, as in tavuk chicken (hen), tedavi (medical) treatment, and partially or completely devoiced initially and finally, as in vermek to give.

[z] <s ss z zz x [gz] > is a lenis alveolar fricative, as in roses, scissors, zoo, dizzy, exact. It is fully voiced in word-medial positions, as m easy, thousand, husband, and partially or completely devoiced in word-initial and final positions, as in zeal, is, rose.

[z] is a lenis alveolar fricative, as in zahmet trouble, difficulty, zan guess, supposition. It is fully voiced in word-medial positions, as in guzel beautiful,taze fresh, and partially or completely devoiced in word-initial and final positions, as in basit simple. [s, z] are constrictive fricative, forelingual, apical alveolar, [s] is strong and voiceless, [z] is weak and voiced, in final position it is partially devoiced.. 1. The tip of the tongue is close to the teeth ridge. The narrowing is round, because of the groove in the blade of the tongue.

  1. The teeth are very close together.
  2. The vocal cords do not vibrate when [s] is produced. For [z] they vibrate when it occurs before vowels or in intervocalic positions, eg zone, easy.
  3. The friction for [s] is strong

Recommendations.

. Put the tip and the blade of the tongue close to the alveolar ridge. The air should hit the tongue at the very centre of the teeth ridge. Push the air through the narrowing very quickly, so that the strong friction is heard. For [z] push it more slowly, so that the friction is weaker. Alternate strong and weak friction for [s-z].

2. Keep the teeth very close together.

2) Now it is time to examine some differences between English and Turkish consonants.

[c] is a voiceless, alveolar fricative like [s] in pleasure. E.g. genciz we are sick , gelecek s/he/it will come, calpack a hat.

[з] - is a fortis palatal-alveoalar fricative, sounds like [ch] as in the word "Turkish", e.g. зocuk child, genз young, genзtir s/he is young.

[dz] or [?] is a lenis palatal affricate, as in jam, gem, midget, suggest, adjacent, grandeur, soldier, Norwich. It is fully voiced in medial positions between voiced sounds, as in midget, urgent, agenda, major, and partially or fully devoiced in initial and final'positions, as in jest, ridge, age, change.are only two affricates in English: [?, ?]. In Turkish we have [?, ?]. They are occlusive-constrictives because a complete obstruction to the stream of air is formed and it is released slowly, with friction, [?, ?] are bicentral. They have two narrowings, both flat, the second focus being between the front part of the tongue and the hard palate (front secondary focus).

[?, ?] are palato-alveolar, forelingual apical.

[?] is strong (fortis), [?] is weak (lenis).

[?] is fully voiced in word initial position before a vowel or in intervocalic position, eg Jack, pigeon. In word final position it is partly devoiced [?], eg George, [tf] is voiceless in all positions.

[?, ?] are occlusive-constrictive, forelingual, apical, palato-alveolar, bicentral; [tf] is strong and voiceless, [?] is weak and voiced. In word final position it is partially devoiced.. 1. The tip of the tongue touches the fcack part of the teeth ridge.

  1. The front part of the tongue is raised towards the hard palate forming the front secondary focus (a flat narrowing).
  2. The"soft palate is raised 50 that the ureatrris-trapped for a short time (because of the complete obstruction between the tongue-tip and the teeth ridge) then the obstruction is released slowly and the friction is heard.

4. The lips are slightly rounded.

[g] <g gg gh> is a lenis dorsal stop, as in go, juggling, ghost, guard; note mute <g> in gnaw, diaphragm, sign, etc. It is fully voiced between voiced sounds, as in eager, eagle, juggling, angry, while in initial and final positions it is partially or completely devoiced, as in go, dog, vague.

[g] is a velar plosive stop. It is always a hard 'g' as in gazete newspaper, gece night, geç late, gerek, necessary etc. It is never soft.

[?] - Not exactly a consonant, it rather distinguishes properties of the vowel it follows. When following a member of the 'dark' vowels (a, o, u, ?) it lengthens the vowel, causing it to be held for two beats instead of one. This is not the same as stress, but rather like the difference between 'saw off' and 'soft': the former 'aw' sound is held for twice the time of the latter. When following a member of the 'light' vowels (e, i, u) it becomes a gliding 'i' sound. This letter does not exist in the English alphabet.

[j] is a palatal sonorant ("semivowel"), as in yes, young, onion. It is often found in the cluster [ju:], spelt <u ew eu eau ue ui>, as in muse, new, beauty, suit.

[j] is a palatal approximant as in jandarma gendarme.

[h] <h wh> is a fortis, voiceless, glottal fricative, found only in syllable-initial positions (word-initially and word-medially), as in he, who, ahead, perhaps, manhood.

[h] is constrictive fricative, glottal, voiceless. As [h] occurs only in рrе-vocalic positions it is the sound of breath passing between the vocal cords and out of the mouth which is already held really for the following vowel: before [i:j the mouth is in position fur [i:], before [u:] it is ready for [u:] and so on; so there are many [h]-sounds in English because different-types of friction will be heard for it in the sequences [hi:], [ha:], [hu:] and others.. In order to make [h]-sounds, hold the mouth ready for the vowel and push a short gasp of breath by the lungs; breathe the air out weakly adding some slight fricative noise to the vowel.

[h] is a fortis, voiceless, glottal fricative in Turkish. /h/ is optionally deleted in fast speech in Turkish, but only in certain segmental contexts /h/ is optionally deleted before sonorant consonants fihrist ~ fi:rist index, tehlike ~ te:like danger, but not after them merhum merum the late, ilham ilam inspiration./h/ is deleted from preconsonantal or final position, compensatory lengthening of the receding vowel occurs, as in kohne ~ ko:ne old.

/h/ is optionally deleted after voiceless stops as in huphe ~ hupe suspicion, ethem ~ etem proper name; and affricates methhul ~ methul unknown, but not before them as in kahpe ka:pe harlot, sahte sa:te counterfeit, ahthi a:thi cook.

/h/ is optionally deleted before and after voiceless fricatives as in mahsus ~ ma:sus special to, ishal ~ isal diarrhea, safha ~ safa step.

/h/ is optionally deleted intervocalically muhendis ~ muendis engineer, muhafaza ~ muafaza protection, as well as word-finally timsah ~ timsa crocodile, but not word-initially hava *ava air.

[?] <sh ch sch s ss t sc с х [ks]> is a fortis, voiceless, post-alveolar fricative, as in ship, machine, schedule, sure, assure, mansion, session, Russian, nation, conscience, special, ocean, luxury. It is spelt <s ss> before <u>, <s ss sc c> before <i>, and <c> before <e>. Therefore textbooks usually distinguish <ti si sci ci ce> as graphs for [s].

[?, ?] are constrictive fricative, forelingual, apical, palate-alveolar, bicentral; [?] is strong and voiceless, [?] is weak and voiced, in final position it is partially devoiced.

Articulation. 1. The tip of the tongue is close to the back part of the teeth ridge forming a flat narrowing.

  1. The front part of the tongue is raised towards the hard palate, forming the front secondary focus, thus palatalizing the sounds.
  2. The lips are neutral or slightly rounded.
  3. The vocal cords do not vibrate when [?] is pronounced, for [?] they vibrate when it ccurs before vowels, eg pleasure.

Recommendations.

.Start from [s], then put the tip of the tongue a bit backwards. Draw the breath inwards to check that the tip is in the right place. Keep this position and then raise the rest of the tongue to say the vowel [i], slightly round the lips and push the breath through strongly.[?] the friction is strong, stronger than for [?], but less noisy than for [s]. For [?] the friction is weak.

[?] or [?] is a fortis, voiceless, post-alveolar fricative, as in ?arap wine, ?a??rmak to be surprised, confused, ?effaf transparent, clear, ?ehir city. It is spelt <s> before <u> as in ?u that (which is almost within my reach) ?unlar, those, phe doubt; <s> before <i> as in ?iir poem ?air, poet. This letter is added in the Turkish alphabet.

[?] <th> is a lenis dental fricative in English. It is fully voiced in word medial positions, as in breathing, father, gather, and partially or completely devoiced in word-initial and final positions, as in the, this, with.

[?] <th> is a fortis, voiceless, dental fricative, as in thought, author, earth.fricative consonants comprise four pairs [f, v; ?; ?, s, z; ? ?] and [h].are constrictive because the air passage is constricted and an incomplete obstruction is formed; they are fricative, because the air passes through the narrowing with audible friction. All the fricatives except [? ?] are unicentral. [? ?] are bicentral, because they have two places of articulation or two foci, the second being produced by the front part of the tongue raised towards the hard palate thus forming a front secondary focus.the production of fricative consonants the narrowing at the place of articulation is flat. Only when [s, z] are produced it is round.

[?, ?] are fore-lingual, apical, interdental, articulated with the tip of the tongue projected between the upper and the lower teeth; [s, z; ?, ?] are forelingual, apical alveolar, produced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth ridge; [h] is glottal, made in the glottis.

[f, ?, s, ? h] are strong (fortis); [v, ?, z, ?] are weak (lenis).

Voicing, [v, ?, z, ?] are fully voiced in word initial position before a vowel as in veal these, zone, giraffe, or in an intervocalic position as in cover, father, bosom.word final position they are partly devoiced as in love |lav], with [wid], rose [nuzj.

[f, ?, s, ? h] are voiceless, the vocal cords are apart and do not vibrate.consonants are oral, the soft palate is raised and the air escapes through the mouth.

[?] or [?] <s z g x [g?] > is a lenis post-alveolar fricative, as in vision, measure, seizure, prestige, luxurious. It is fully voiced word-medially, as in pleasure,, usual, decision, and may-be partially or completely devoiced word-finally (word-initially it is found only in a few weakly integrated French loanwords, such as jabot, gigue).

[?] <ng n> is a dorsal nasal sonorant, as in sing, singer, sink, lynx, uncle, tongue.

[?] is occlusive, nasal, backlingual, velar. . 1. The back part of the tongue is pressed to the soft palate.

  1. The soft palate is lowered and the air goes through the nose.
  2. The vocal cords vibrate.

Recommendations. 1.Open the mouth wide, raise the back of the tongue to the soft palate so that you can feel the firm contact of them. Push the air through the nose. The tip of the tongue is low in the mouth. Be sure to keep this mouth position. At the end of the sound let it die away into silence with no suggestion of [k] or [g].

[w] <w wh qu [kw] u> is a labial dorsal' sonorant, as in we, which, quick, language; note also one, once, choir, suit with [w].

[w] is constrictive, medial, bilabial, bicentral. In Turkish instead of [w] the phoneme [v] is used. . 1. The lips are firmly rounded and slightly protruded forming an incomplete obstruction.

. The soft palate is raised and the air goes to the mouth.

  1. The back part of the tongue is raised towards the soft pal ate forming the secondary focus.
  2. The sides of the tongue are raised and the air goes along the central part of the tongue.
  3. The vocal cords vibrate.

Recommendations.

. Keep the lips well rounded and even slightly protruded forming a round narrowing for the air stream.

. Push the air through the mouth.

The Turkish alphabet has no Q, W or X. Instead, these are transliterated into Turkish as K, V, and KS, respectively.

[?]is a fortis, voiceless, alveolar fricative, as in ça?da? modern, contemporary, çal??mak to work. This letter is added in the Turkish alphabet and that is why does not exist in English.


Summary

has been hypothesized that sounds which are less perceptible are more likely to be altered than more salient sounds, the rationale being that the loss of information resulting from a change in a sound which is difficult to perceive is not as great as the loss resulting from a change in a more salient sound. are 24 consonants in the English language. The Turkish language has 20 consonant phonemes. There are 13 consonants that are the same in both languages. Among them are [b], [c], [d], [f], [k], [l], [m], [n], [p], [r], [t], [v] and [z]. are 3 consonants which do not exist in the Turkish language. They are [q], [w] and [x]. Instead, these are transliterated into Turkish as [k] [v], and [ks], respectively. there 3 consonants which are added in the Turkish alphabet. They are [ç], [?], [?].


Conclusion

analyzed the consonant sounds and having found some similarities and differences between consonant sounds of English and Turkish language we can come to the following conclusions:

) [p, b] are forelingual, bilabial, apical alveolar stops [t, d], backlingual, velar [k, g] produced with the back part of the tongue against the soft palate.

[p, t, k] are strong or fortis as they are pronounced with more muscular energy and a stronger breath effort than [b, d, g] which are weak or lenis.

[p, b] are occlusive, plosive, bilabial; [p] is strong and voiceless, [b] is weak and voiced, in final position it is partly devoiced.

[t?] <ch tch t> is a fortis, voiceless, palato-alveolar affricate

[?] is a fortis, voiceless, alveolar fricative

[f, v] are constrictive fricative, labio-dental; [f] is strong and voiceless; [v] is weak and voiced, in the final position it is partly devoiced.

[?, ?] are fore-lingual, apical, interdental, articulated with the tip of the tongue projected between the upper and the lower teeth; [s, z; ?, ?] are forelingual, apical alveolar, produced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth ridge; [h] is glottal, made in the glottis.

[t, d] are occlusive, plosive, forelingual, apical, alveolar; [t] is strong and voiceless, [d] is weak and voiced, in final position it is partly devoiced.

[z] is a lenis alveolar fricative, as in zahmet trouble, difficulty, zan guess, supposition. It is fully voiced in word-medial positions, as in guzel beautiful,taze fresh, and partially or completely devoiced in word-initial and final positions, as in basit simple. [s, z] are constrictive fricative, forelingual, apical alveolar, [s] is strong and voiceless, [z] is weak and voiced, in final position it is partially devoiced.

) There are only two affricates in English: [?, ?]. In Turkish we have [?, ?]. They are occlusive-constrictives because a complete obstruction to the stream of air is formed and it is released slowly, with friction, [?, ?] are bicentral. They have two narrowings, both flat, the second focus being between the front part of the tongue and the hard palate (front secondary focus).

[?, ?] are palato-alveolar, forelingual apical.

[?] is strong (fortis), [?] is weak (lenis).

[?] is fully voiced in word initial position before a vowel or in intervocalic position, eg Jack, pigeon. In word final position it is partly devoiced [?], eg George, [tf] is voiceless in all positions.

[?, ?] are occlusive-constrictive, forelingual, apical, palato-alveolar, bicentral; [tf] is strong and voiceless, [?] is weak and voiced. In word final position it is partially devoiced.

[?] - Not exactly a consonant, it rather distinguishes properties of the vowel it follows.

When following a member of the 'light' vowels (e, i, u) it becomes a gliding 'i' sound. This letter does not exist in the English alphabet.

[h] is constrictive fricative, glottal, voiceless. As [h] occurs only in рrе-vocalic positions it is the sound of breath passing between the vocal cords and out of the mouth which is already held really for the following vowel: before [i:j the mouth is in position fur [i:], before [u:] it is ready for [u:] and so on;

[?] <sh ch sch s ss t sc с х [ks]> is a fortis, voiceless, post-alveolar fricative, as in ship, machine, schedule, sure, assure, mansion, session, Russian, nation, conscience, special, ocean, luxury. It is spelt <s ss> before <u>, <s ss sc c> before <i>, and <c> before <e>. Therefore textbooks usually distinguish <ti si sci ci ce> as graphs for [s].

[?, ?] are constrictive fricative, forelingual, apical, palate-alveolar, bicentral; [?] is strong and voiceless, [?] is weak and voiced, in final position it is partially devoiced.

[?, ?] are fore-lingual, apical, interdental, articulated with the tip of the tongue projected between the upper and the lower teeth; [s, z; ?, ?] are forelingual, apical alveolar, produced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth ridge; [h] is glottal, made in the glottis.

[f, ?, s, ? h] are strong (fortis); [v, ?, z, ?] are weak (lenis).


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References


According to the Degree of NoiseClass A. Noise ConsonantsClass B. SonorantsVary: 1. In the manner of articulation. 2. In the place of articulation. 3. In the work of the vocal cords. 4. In the force of articulation.Vary: 1. In the manner of articulation. 2. In the place of articulation. 3. In the position of the soft palate. 4. In the direction of the air stream.

Ciass A. Noise consonantsb, d. g, v, d. z, з,Фp, t, k, f, Э, sj.1f.liAccording to the work of the vocal cordsvoicedvoicelessAccording to the force of articulationweak (lenis)strong (fortis

Active org./ place of obstructionForelingualMediolingualBacklingualDental/Interdentald, tAlveolar t, d, n, l, s, zAlveolar-palatal c, g, s, zPost-alveolarrPalataljVelark, g, n

The Classification of English Consonants According to the Place of Articulation

LabialLingualGlottalBilabialLabiodentalForelingualMedio-lingual palatalBack-lingual velarinterdentalalveolarpost-alveolarpalato-alveolarP.b m wf,ve s z n t,d r? ?k, gh 1

Noise ConsonantsSonorantsOcclusive stops (plosives)Constrictive fricativesOcclusive-constrictive „(affricates)OcclusiveConstrictivep,b t, d k,gf, v s, г h?, ?m n 0w 1 r j

LetterIPAEnglish approximationLetterIPAEnglish approximationBbbAs b in batMmmAs m in manCcd?As j in jobNnnAs n in notÇçt?As ch in chatPppAs p in putDddAs d in dogRr?As r in ratFffAs f in farSssAs s in sandGggAs g in gap???As sh in she??:Soft, lengthens preceding vowelTttAs t in topHhhAs h in hotVvvAs v in valveJj?As g in montageZzzAs z in zipKkkAs c in catLllAs l in let

Consonant phonemes of Standard English

BilabialLabio dentalInter dentalDentalAlveolarAlveo palatalPalatalVelar UvularPharyngealGlottalPlosivep, bt, dk, gNasalmnTrillFlaprFricativef, v?, ?s, z ?hApproximantj Lateral ApproximantAffricate?phonemes of Standard Turkish

BilabialLabiodentalDentalAlveolarPostalveolarPalatalVelarGlottalPlosivespbtdcjk?NasalsmnFricativesfvsz???hAffricates??TaprApproximantjLateral approximantsll

Bb same as in EnglishCc like s in pleasure. Ç - sounds like ch as in the word "Turkish"Dd same as in English. Ff same as in EnglishGg as "g" in "God". ?? is silent, but makes the vowels before it long when it appears at the end of a word or before a consonant. Between vowels it is either silent or is pronounced (y)Hh as in HelloJj as in garageKk same as in English.Ll like l in life.Mm same as in English Nn same as in EnglishPp same as in EnglishRr same as in EnglishSs same as in English, ?? as in "shower"Tt same as in English. Vv just like English.Zz just like English. Q, W, X dont exist in the Turkish alphabetÇ, ?, ?, are added letters in the Turkish alphabet.


A contrastive analysis of consonants of English and Turkish languages Content Introduction

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